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Red spotted toad

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by

Carli Domenico

on 13 November 2014

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Transcript of Red spotted toad

Craig Childs is traveling alone in desert
It is REALLY hot
He sees many plants and cottonwood tree growing in canyon
Cottonwood is a sign of water- he drinks some water
Raven method to keep cool
He repels into a small clearing area in the shade
Sees first red-spotted toad
It is the size of his thumb
It is "like a crawling infant, made cumbersome, groping moves through the debris. Designed half for water, half for land"
This is crazy: Toads need water, alot of water - he concludes it is the red spotted toad
States that there is "perhaps one half-ounce toad occupying each unit of ten square miles
Toads cannot fly or be carried in the wind between water sources. They will dig into ground before shriveling

Red Spotted Toad Carli Domenico
Jose Magraner
Josh Burris
Sarah Micheletti When this happens: The toad estivates in a state of dry dormancy waiting for the next rain
The next time it rains they will emerge, reproduce, and dig again
However most cannot survive under for more than a year He concludes: this toad must have come down during the last rain (2 weeks previously)
Much to his surprise there is also a wood fern in the shade where he was
"It was the greenest item for miles in any direction
Dryopteris filix-mas ("male fern" is the common name)
He goes to sleep and wakes up discovering many, many red-spotted toads
They rotated their bodies and pressed flat into the sand
"The toad, being an amphibian, was the first critter to swim out of the primordial sea 250 million years ago and waddle its way across the land."
Amphibian means "double life"
A toad does not drink water
The wrinkles on its skin draw liquid; epidermal sculpturing
Like a sponge/rag
It drinks by water osmotically seeping over the skin and into the body
The toad's water supply is moved by capillary functions, cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension
A red- spotted toad Does this by taking water through a "seat patch" located along its belly and between its back legs.
It snugs against the ground, and the water is absorbed into the seat pouch like a sponge
They can even gather moisture from sand and stone
In sand they can borrow one grain deeper to the next "level" for moisture The red-spotted toad can withstand a 30% drop in weight from water loss yet can store up to half its body weight in reserved water

The toads around Craig were awaiting more water to reproduce because they need water for eggs

The red-spotted toad or the Bufo punctatus is one of the only two toad species to lay eggs one at a time rather than in mats

This adaptation is beneficial because the single eggs with sticky sheaths spread out the possibilities for survival in the last drop of water (in a footprint, sandstone bowl, etc)

Common toads lay a patch or string of eggs in a body of water or somewhere with little concern for drought
The Southwest is now littered with populations left over from the Ice Age

"Any place that has a toad is dynamic and rich" Class: Amphibia Order: Anura
Family: bufonidae
Genus: Bufo Species: Punctatus More about the toads: There are two small rounded glandular structures behind their eyes called parotoid glands
These emit a potent toxin on some toads; however the red-spotted toads emit produce little to no toxins Red spotted toads live from central Texas westward to southeast California and into Mexico and Baja California Breeding tends to be between April and September
rain is the main controlling factor
Tadpoles take between 40-60 days to transform into adults
The female carries developed eggs, which need external fertilization
The male fertilizes the eggs which are enveloped in a gelatinous coating to protect the embryo Red-spotted toads eat Beetles Ants Bugs & other arthropods Animals that eat red-spotted toads: mammals
and birds Craig's Conclusion: Youtube : red-spotted toad
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