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Nina Cavender

on 28 October 2012

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Transcript of Arsenic

So... Who Discovered This Thing?! Credit for arsenic's discovery is given to the alchemist Albert the Great (Albertus Magnus). Elemental Name: Arsenic
Elemental Symbol: As
Atomic Number: 33
Avg. Atomic Mass: 74.9216
Period: 4th period
Family Name: Nitrogen Family
Location: Group 18 on Periodic Table
Metal or Non-Metal: Neither! Arsenic is a metalloid.
Physical State at Room Temperature: Solid
Density: 5.72 grams The Basics Common Physical and Chemical Properties Physical: In arsenic's most common form, it is shiny, a grayish-metallic color, and very brittle. Wait... WE DO! It is believed that Albert the Great discovered arsenic in 1250 A.D. in France, but this is a little iffy. Historians aren't quite sure who discovered it, but they are sticking with Albert.
It was 1250 A.D. so we have to give the historians a little bit of a break. Would you look at that! There it is! Fun Fact: This form of arsenic can conduct electricity! In arsenic's uncommon solid form it is a yellow, crystallized solid! What does that look like? I wish we had a picture... This form of arsenic is a poor electrical conductor, and can revert back to it's common shiny, gray form at room temperature. Fun Fact: This form of arsenic is produced when vapors of arsenic are cooled extremely quickly! How crystalline! How yellow! Chemical: Well, now that we have those physical properties cleared up, we have the chemical properties! To start off, arsenic is a metalloid... And when arsenic is exposed to moist air, it tarnishes and becomes a bronzey color, but eventually turns back to it's most common gray color. When heated extremely quickly, arsenic oxidises... Quick Dictionary:
"Oxidise" means to combine with oxygen When arsenic oxidises, it turns into arsenious oxide, which is known for having a very strong garlicky odor... Gross! Would you look at that! It's a picture of the electron configuration of arsenic! How helpful! Electron Configuration But get ready for this... Here is the written configuration... 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p3 To be an expert on the element arsenic (like the super smart chemist who made this Prezi), you need to know all of the basic facts on the element. So here are the rest! More Basics! Common Ion Charge: +3
Melting Point: 817.0 °C (1502.6 °F)
Boiling Point: 613.0 °C (1135.4 °F)
Color and Texture: Shiny, gray, brittle, metallic looking in most common, solid state. In uncommon form, crystalline, yellow, and solid.
Stable Isotopes: Arsenic's stable isotope number is 1. The mass number of that stable isotope is 75.
Radioactive Isotopes: There are none!
Atomic Radius: 1.33 Å
Source of Arsenic: It is most commonly found in the Earth's crust and many minerals. Is that arsenic I see in the Earth's crust?! But not as quirky as Zooey Deschanel ... Quirky Information! I'm kidding... Now, on to the chemistry! The top producers of arsenic are China, Peru, Chile, and Morocco. The arsenic produced in Peru comes from their copper mines, and in China it comes from gold mining. Geographical Locations and Major Sources Mining in Peru... And China! Argentina, Austria, Australia, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Finland, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Jamaica, Japan, Laos, Mexico, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, USA, Vietnam Arsenic is not necessarily something you want around you. Unfortunately, many countries around the world have reported very high concentrations of arsenic in their ground water and soil though! Here are just a few: Well, maybe that's a little more than a few... Here is a map showing all the countries that have reported these high concentrations of arsenic... Definitely puts it in perspective! Uses: In the distant past (18th, 19th, and 20th centuries) arsenic was used in the form of medicine. Seems contradictory now that we know about arsenic poisoning! Two of the most commonly used forms of arsenic were arsphenamine and arsenic trioxide. Arsephenamine was prescribed for syphilis and trypanosomiasis, and arsenic trioxide was useful in treating cancer. Practical Uses, Applications, and Issues of Arsenic I don't know about you, but I would not take something that said "POISON", even if I had syphilis! The Peanut Gallery: Old arsenic tablets... How historical! In the more recent past, arsenic was commonly used in rat poisons, used in pigments of makeup, and as an ingredient in poisonous gases and insecticides. Arsenic is very, very rarely used in products nowadays since we have discovered it's extremely dangerous effects. The most arsenic is used in manufacturing these days is during the production of ammunition, since it helps to create harder and rounder bullets. Copper-arsenic covered bullets and rat poison!
How lovely... Issues: Oh my! Where do I start? Arsenic has an endless list of issues... The most important and deadly though is arsenic poisoning.When exposed to arsenic, people contract arsenic poisoning. People can be exposed to arsenic through touching, breathing, and consumption. Some symptoms of arsenic poisoning include headaches, confusion, severe diarrhea, and drowsiness. As the poisoning progresses, convulsions and changing fingernail pigmentation occur. When the poisoning becomes acute, the person might suffer diarrhea, vomiting, blood in the urine, cramping muscles, hair loss, stomach pain, and more convulsions. The organs that are most effected by arsenic poisoning include the heart, lungs, liver, skin, and kidney. Doesn't that just sound lovely? Ladies and gentleman, buckle your seat belts. Please make sure all limbs are in the vehicle at all times. Paper bags for vomiting are located in the compartments in front of you. Prepare yourselves for the pictures ahead...

That's us! Reaction of arsenic with water: Arsenic does not react with water in the absence of air under normal conditions. LAME.

Reaction of arsenic with halogens: Arsenic reacts with fluorine, F2, to form the gas pentafluoride arsenic(V) fluoride.
2As(s) + 5F2(g) 2 AsF5(g) [colourless]

Arsenic reacts under controlled conditions with the halogens fluorine, F2, chlorine, Cl2, bromine, Br2, and iodine, I2, to form the respective trihalides arsenic(III) fluoride, AsF3, arsenic(III) chloride, AsCl3, arsenic(III) bromide, AsBr3, and arsenic(III) iodide, AsI3.
2As(s) + 3F2(g) 2AsF3(l) [colourless]
2As(s) + 3Cl2(g) 2AsCl3(l) [colourless]
2As(s) + 3Br2(g) 2AsBr3(s) [pale yellow]
2As(s) + 3I2(g) 2AsI3(s) [red] Common Reactions of Arsenic When arsenic is exposed to chlorine gas, it bursts into flame! Crazy Reaction! A little history lesson! Something Interesting So, there was this emperor named Napoleon... You might have heard of him before. Well, when he died on May 5th, 1821, everyone first thought that he had been murdered. After his autopsy though, his doctors determined that he had died because of a stomach ulcer that had turned cancerous... Blech. Almost a hundred years later, in 1952, a Swedish dentist named Sten Forshufvud read the recently published account of Napoleons death. Based on his knowledge of toxicology, Forshufvd determined that Napolean had indeed been murdered, by continuous arsenic poisoning. Look at Sten!
What a cutie. To prove his theory, Forshufvd called upon Glasgow University forensic scientist, Professor Hamilton Smith, who had developed the nuclear techniques to record very small levels of arsenic. With these techniques, and a small sample of Napolean's hair that had been passed down for generations, the duo determined that there were small quantities of arsenic
in Napolean's system at the time of his death. Is that arsenic
in there!? Impressive... No split ends! However, in 1980, Dr. David Jones made a radio program, broadcast by the BBC, in which he asked if anyone knew the color of Napoleon's wallpaper in his house on the island of St Helena. A woman by the name of Shirley Bradley had an actual sample of Napoleon's wallpaper. Jones tested the sample of wallpaper and learned that the sample did not contain enough arsenic to kill Napoleon, but did exacerbate his ulcer. The accessory to murder... It looks so guilty! Many of the people that lived with Napoleon complained about the "bad air" in his house, which could have easily been the vapour form of arsenic, normally a mixture of arsine, dimethyl and trimethyl arsine which is very poisonous. One of Napoleon's butlers did die from the arsenic in the wallpaper. His symptoms were recorded by the doctor on St. Helena, and all of his symptoms were the same as those of arsenic poisoning. So... The wallpaper is guilty! It's not an accessory to murder, it's a killer! MURDERER! No! Please!
It was my gas!
There has been great concern with the amounts of arsenic in rice products in the past few years. Products containing any form of rice have been called into question, including toddler formulas, high-energy products for endurance athletes, cereal/energy bars, packaged cereals, etc. Though rice grown in the United States seems to have lower levels of the concerning arsenic, rice grown elsewhere in the world, in places like China and Thailand, have been under scrutiny be the FDA. Arsenic in the News You are all now arsenic experts! Congratulations! You have graduated from the University of Arsenic! Woohoo! Arsenic
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