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New Ideologies 19th Century
Transcript of New Ideologies 19th Century
Introduction of liberalism in the 18th century by les philosophes meant a new age in British politics, which continued through the Industrial Revolution.
The old Tory and Whig parties became the Conservative and Liberal parties respectively, reflecting the new era in Britain.
•Emphasized rationalism, importance of individual happiness (individualism)
•Role of state is to protect the freedom and rights of the individual
•Believed that human rights would be lost if government intervened
•Generally, reflected views of middle class
•Believed in value of traditional life
•More government necessary to control society and preserve general order
•Generally had a less optimistic view of human nature than liberals
•Reflected views of upper class
•Gladstone (Liberal) and Disraeli (Conservative) were two of the most influential political leaders of the late Industrial Revolution.
•The political spectrum is also linked heavily to the ideological phenomena that grew during the Industrial Revolution.
During the 1800s, worker disenchantment grew as living conditions deteriorated. As the Industrial Revolution progressed, the factory owners accumulated great wealth while the working classes retained none. Enter socialism.
During the 1800s, worker disenchantment grew as living condition deteriorated. As the Industrial Revolution progressed, the factory owners accumulated great wealth while the working classes retained none.
'Laissez-Faire' (leave to do) economics began as a reaction to mercantilism and government intervention in the economy
Believed that free competition, with no restrictions or regulations, would promote economic progress
New industrialists resented government interference in what they saw as their own business
The market would regulate itself based on what is best for the consumer
Companies would thrive or fail, natural
Society, not private individuals, would own the means of production
Ex: factories, machines, mines, railroads, banks and farms that are needed to produce goods
Believed everyone should be a worker
all would be equal and nobody would be able to exploit anyone else
Predicted the evils of society (poverty, unemployment, crime, war) would disappear
Scientific socialists saw the need for change on a GLOBAL scale through revolutionary and immediate means
Karl Marx Video
Believed in laissez faire, saw it wasn't being applied well in society
Suffering of workers led to more active role of the gov't in the economy
Gov't intervention was necessary to stop the abuses of industrialization
Need to reorganize society into ideal communities
Many different interpretations
Concerned with bettering humanity
Laws need to change to help the lives of men, woman and children
Wanted change through a peaceful and orderly manner
Decisions should be made on what achieves the most happiness and the maximum value is for society
Claude Henri Saint-Simon
John Stuart Mill
The Politics of the World Were Changed Forever!
Answer the Following Questions:
1) What is dialectics? What did Marx see as a flaw?
3) What are his views on religion?
4) What were the ideas in the Communist Manifesto?
5) What is important about Das Kapital?
6) How did the Paris Commune affect Marx?
7) How do communist countries reflect Marx's beliefs?
We often require goods and services that others provide.
Man is an animal that makes bargains.
We must therefore agree to exchange goods or money between us in a way that benefits both parties.
People act out of self-interest.
The socio-economic status of each group is defined by its relationship to property and the means of production.
People align into groups ...
... with others who share their social and economic interests
... against those in conflict with their social and economic interests
When the means of production changes, such as form agricultural to industrial, there are revolutions and wars.
The proletariat owns little property or business.
The bourgeois or ruling class owns most of a country's property and businesses.
The ruling class is displaced and a new one is created.
History is a record of these class struggles and displacements.
Capitalism and private property make labour into a commodity.
This alienates workers from what they produce, from their work, from their human identity, and from fellow humans.
Communism abolishes private property and brings the end of alienation.
Communism is the riddle of history solved.
The worker puts effort and ingenuity into the products he creates
In an ideal economic system, products embody his efforts and creativity, improving self-worth
Under capitalism, the goods are "alien" objects, disconnected from the worker.
Decisions should be made on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number.
Individuals should be free to do whatever gives them pleasure, even if it could harm them...
... but they are not entitled to do things that could harm others.
Individuals can choose to do things that affect their own body, but not that of someone else.
Over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign.
For a healthy society, individuals should be free to think and act as long as they don't harm others.
Often this doesn't happen because of the tyranny of the majority.
This brings conformity and hampers the testing out of new ideas and ways of life.
That so few dare to be eccentric marks the chief danger of the time.
Utopia was an imaginary island described b Sir Thomas More in his book Utopia (1516). A utopia is a society that possesses perfection in law, politics, etc. and can be seen as an ideal place or state.
Take a few moments and think about what your ideal Utopian society would be. Take into account:
Laws Defining the Culture of Society
Capitalism alienates us from our labor in four major ways:
1. We do not own what we produce.
2. Assembly line production makes us machine like.
3. We have no say in the production process.
4. Not even allowed to take naps at work :)