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Changes In Higher Education


Kim Queri

on 25 March 2013

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Transcript of Changes In Higher Education

Changes in Higher
Education Michael Horn
Kim Queri
Misty Engelbrecht Academic Management, Consumerism,
Stratification, and Legitimacy Higher Education as a Social
Institution Economically Responsive
or Socially Responsible? Ensure Compliance with Demands Monitoring Vulnerabilities Cultivating New Resources Academic Management Introduction Reinventing Government Threats to Status Quo Higher Education
as Industry Monitoring Vulnerabilities

Cultivation of New Resources

Reducing Existing Dependencies

Ensure Compliance with demands. Comes from environmental turbulence.
Could be local, state, regional or national
Examples include:
Enrollment changes
Shifts in state appropriations
How changes are handled by peer institutions Process of adopting new strategies that will generate revenue for the organization.

Examples include:
improve public relations with state
seek out new student markets
find new sources for research funding
stepping up efforts for alumni giving
cultivating new sources of private revenue Most often tied to state and national funding
Examples include:
student financial aid
state general fund appropriations Objectives Changes in Higher Education
Higher Education as Industry
Higher Education as Social Institution
Future Three main changes to higher education:
Academic management
Academic consumerism
Academic stratification

How did this come about? Professionals understand threats of:

“Deleting courses, degree programs & departments” (Gumport, 1995)

“Selective consolidation and program elimination”, particularly if not cost-effective” (Gumport, 1993) “Reinventing Government” first published in 1993
and became a bestseller

Some tenets of the book:
Community-owned government
Competitive government
Mission-driven government
Results-oriented government
Customer-driven government
Decentralized government
Market-oriented government 1990s initiative by the Clinton administration to downsize government
Invents a new approach to model public services after the private sector
Focuses on how organizations work rather than what they are trying to accomplish “Reinventing Government” C-SPAN VIDEO http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/62294-1 Conflicting Values Narrowing of academic offerings for different
segments of the student population
In microeconomic theory, orgs are based upon
values of economic rationality
Focus is to increase customer satisfaction
(Seymour, 1992) Higher Ed as a Marketplace Now higher ed must cater to many groups:
Obtaining students
Placing graduates
Hiring faculty
Obtaining research funding
Collaborating with local state and industry
Maintaining endowments
Maintaining alumni resources When you make the choice … Will a new program attract
new customers
and increase revenue? Versus … Will a new program enhance
learning and the students’
needs as they relate to our
culture and values? The Dilemma The “outsiders” want students
trained for their first
job out of university

The academics inside
the system want the student
educated for 50 years of self-fulfillment

The students want both (Schwartz, 2003) Conflict between market oriented nature and symbolic obligations of HE

Should HE promote economic advancement or engaged citizenship? The Ancient Collision Vocational Training Honing the
mind Short-Term
Goals Long-Term
Goals General Education Nourishing
the soul The purpose of
Higher education Knowledge creation, preservation,
and transmission
Prepare students for engaged citizenship
Preserve culture, heritage and character
by fostering scholarship, service
learning, and building strong links
between campus and community. Conrad and Dunek “higher education should be about more than preparing students for the workforce"... should focus on:
developing expertise in diverse modes of inquiry
critical thinking skills
communication abilities
capacity to engage in spirited dialogue
prepare students to foster their own ideas
this will enable students to adapt to constant change
throughout their careers, public and personal lives”
(Wiscape, 2012) The Role of
Higher education Evolution of HE Post-WW11 Expanded use of
technology Expansion of higher education Societal expectations of
HE as industry Reshaped public
expectations of
higher education
redefined what
activities were or were
not recognized as
higher education
Shifted the conception of public higher education from a social
institution to an industry Education is key to economic
development and political stability
Educate the masses
Develop human capital
Contribute to economic
development by employing and
producing workers, workforce
Developing industry and technology
Producing competitive graduates
for the job market and cutting
edge research for industry
(Suspitsyna, 2012) HE as a Business Betrays the true
meaning of a university Values economic capital over academic capital
Erodes traditional academic standards in favor of portability and transferability
Places more value on head
count and $$ than academic
Institutions adapt to meet
short-term (possibly volatile)
economic demands
Trade off may be neglecting the larger range of societal responsibly of higher education which, in turn, may jeopardize long-term impact of higher education on society Gumport, P. J. (2000). Academic Restructuring: Organizational Change and Institutional Imperatives. Higher Education, (1), 67. doi:10.2307/3447907
Schwartz, S. (2003, May 16). The higher purpose. Retrieved from http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/176727.article
Suspitsyna, T. (2012). Higher Education for Economic Advancement and Engaged Citizenship: An Analysis of the U.S. Department of Education Discourse. The Journal Of Higher Education, (1), 49. doi:10.2307/41337272
Wiscape. (2012, July 03). Conrad's 'cultivating inquiry-driven learners' offers innovative purpose for college education . Retrieved from http://wiscape.wisc.edu/newsroom/newsitem.aspx?id=437b0d9c-f1a0-40ae-86c3-b55d1f48af47 Scenario1:Academic Capitalism Scenario 2:Hiring Faculty Scenario 3: Student-Consumer References In the contemporary era, dependency on state appropriations has created financial challenges for many institutions. Higher administrators need to determine the potential costs and benefits of any course of action. Key Concerns:
Transparency and accountability
Who are the constituencies and what do they want?
What are successful peer institutions doing?
Can some demands be solved easily? "Managerial Professionals" Shift from "authority role" to a "managerial role" for higher administrators.
Currently making decisions on how the organization will invest its academic resources and ultimately possibly change the character of the institution. Academic Consumerism Who dose the institution Serve?
research funders
students as consumers
students as potential or current employees who seek workforce training. Rise of Academic Consumerism The student-consumer is presumed to be capable of informed choice, with the ability to pay.

The enrolled student-consumer is assumed to have chosen to attend that particular institution.

Student-consumers are "encouraged to think of them selves as consumers of service rather than as members of a community"

Consumer taste and satisfaction can become elevated to new heights in the minds of those responsible for designing academic services or programs. Academic Stratification Re-stratification of academic subjects and academic personnel based upon the increased
"use-value" compared to "exchange-value"
What do students need to know?
What does employes want them to know? Managing for Legitimacy Making gains in one area may mean a loss in another area. Full-Time Faculty
Adjuncts Rush to hire Faculty 30% of almost 100,000 community college faculty members are eligible to retire in the next four years.
40% of faculty at Maricopa will be eligible to retire in the next four years.
"Each hire is a million dollar investment" (Fred Gaskin)
In California, in 1998, a law was passed that requires a 75 -25 percent ratio of full-time to part-time professors at a two year college.
No other state but California has this law.
Rose State College Social Science division has roughly 20 full-time faculty and about 90 adjunct faculty. How does his change the cultural character of the school? Older more established institutions may choose not to create a new and up and coming degree program in order to maintain legitimacy. (Cultural/historical needs)
Community colleges create new degree programs to gain legitimacy. (Community/Economics needs)
Example : Cyber Security What are the positive and negative benefits and consequences of academic capitalism?
In what ways is the culture of the institution and of higher education in general, an important consideration in making a decision about how to handle a situation like this?
What differences, if any, between the academic and industry cultures are likely to come into play with this type of issue? How can these differences be best addressed? Southern Community College (SCC)
is a state institution with an enrollment
of approximately 10,000 students.
As with many state institutions,
SCC is experiencing difficult financial
times and state support has been on the decline. Background The college is compensating for decreased funding through liaisons with business and marketing educational services. Faculty members are being encouraged to do more research, especially in research and development in the local region in order to bring in more external revenue to the institution. Based on research of economic demand in the area, the college has developed a new degree program in information technology (IT). The difficult financial situation has resulted in a temporary hiring freeze of full time faculty therefore the institution has become more reliant on adjunct faculty instead of full time faculty. A full time faculty member in the management division will oversee the adjunct faculty that will develop and implement the new program. What are the positive and negative benefits and consequences of relying on adjunct professors instead of hiring full time professors?
In what ways is the culture of the institution and of higher education in general, an important consideration in making a decision about how to handle a situation like this?
What differences, if any, between the academic and industry cultures are likely to come into play with this type of issue? How can these differences be best addressed? When one of Dr. Finney’s students brought a class project to his office recently, Dr. Finney gave him a 20% penalty on his grade for turning the project in late. The project guidelines clearly stated the penalty for all late projects, but the student became angry at him for giving him a poor grade.

“I have this guy in my office who thinks he is a graduating senior…and this guy was late to class all semester and he turned in his paper late,” Finney explained. “And after I gave him the 20% penalty, he became angry at me and stood in my office telling me how angry he was with me that he is not going to graduate now. From my perspective I have done exactly what I have told him I was going to do, and now he isn’t going to graduate and he is angry at me for it.”

This type of reaction represents a sense of entitlement on behalf of the student, and it is becoming a problem for professors.

SCC, like many community colleges, face the challenge of student retention. Colleges need students and they need those students to graduate. Colleges and universities are increasingly using customer service initiatives to attract students, but treating students as customers may have a negative effect on their education if it leads students to feel entitled to good grades or prone to complaining to get what they want but don’t deserve. Scenario 3: Questions What are some major issues or problems with viewing students as customers?
What are some strategies for addressing the problems or issues?
In what ways is the culture of an institution and of higher education in general, an important consideration in making a decision about how to handle a situation like this?
What differences between the academic and administrative cultures are likely to come into play with this type of issue?
How can these differences be best addressed?
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