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Global Health Security

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Jason Rao

on 30 March 2016

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Transcript of Global Health Security


Global Health Security
Washington DC
You are here
Pakistan sliding back...
Berdsk: After

Funding authorized in H.R. 3338-70, Chapter 3 (
Bio-Industry Initiative

“…the bill requires that $30,000,000 be transferred to the Department of State in support of the Biological Weapons and Science and Technology Centers programs. These programs have been reasonably effective in promoting the reconfiguration of former Soviet Biological weapons facilities for peaceful uses and preventing former Soviet biological weapons experts from emigrating to proliferant states. The Committee expects these funds to be used to redirect to veterinary vaccine production the Russian biological production facilities in Pokrov and
Berdsk that are now capable of producing large quantities of anthrax
and smallpox biological agents. Funds should also be used to engage former Soviet biological weapons scientists in collaborative research with U.S. corporations to develop new vaccine and drug therapies for highly infectious diseases.”

9/11 Emergency Supplemental

Untapped Potential:

“While science and technology cooperation was an essential aspect of US Cold War strategy, little understanding has been developed for how this key US strength—its strong science and technology resources and institutions—might be better utilized as part of its overall strategy towards the Islamic world.”

Largest Hurdle to Cooperation was Getting there……

Disease Burden


State WMD Program

Domestic Capacity



Brain Drain

Comprehensive security
Personnel reliability

Attempted theft stopped
Insider theft thwarted

Comprehensive training
USDA R&D program

(Balitvet 2009)

No physical security
No personnel reliability
Hazardous conditions
Poor R&D practices
No biosafety training
No reseach capacity
Little disease surveillance

(Balitvet 2007)

Located in Bogor

“Plum Island” of Indonesia

Central Animal Lab

HPAI, Anthrax, FMD, Brucella)

500 personnel

Indonesia: "Balit-Vet"

Policy in Action:
Authorization and Appropriation

Chapter 9 of Part II of
the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961
(22 U.S.C. 2349bb et seq.) is amended by inserting after section 584 the following new section:


`(a) Establishment- The Secretary of State shall establish a program to combat bioterrorism world-wide by providing training, equipment, and financial and technical (including legal) assistance in such areas as biosecurity, biosafety, pathogen surveillance, and timely response to outbreaks of infectious disease, and by providing increased opportunity for scientists who possess expertise that could make a material contribution to the development, manufacture, or use of biological weapons to engage in remunerative careers that promote public health and safety.
`(b) Activities Included- Activities in the program established pursuant to subsection (a) may include such activities as the
Biosecurity Engagement Program of the Office of Cooperative Threat Reduction in the Department of State

Berdsk: Before


Cooperative Threat Reduction

“Prevention of diversion of weapons-related scientific expertise to terrorist groups or third countries.”

“To strengthen the bilateral ties of the United States with friendly governments by offering concrete assistance in areas of mutual concern.”

Foreign Assistance Act of 1961
(P.L. 87-195),

National Security Strategy & QDDR

Recognizes S&T, education and development as a moral, strategic, and economic imperative for the United States and our partners, and calls for expanded international health and science partnerships.

Science Envoys

New Beginnings:

President Obama, Cairo, 4 June 2009 :

“On science and technology, we will launch a new fund to support technological development in Muslim-majority countries, and to help transfer ideas to the marketplace so they can create jobs. We will open centers of scientific excellence in Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia, and
appoint new science envoys
to collaborate on programs that develop new sources of energy, create green jobs, digitize records, clean water, grow new crops.”

What’s next?

Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee Hearing
“World at Risk: The Report of the Commission
on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism”
Washington, DC
Dec. 11, 2008

New BSL3, National Institute of Health


Pakistan 2009
Virology Building, National Institute of Health


Pakistan NIH

Health Diplomacy and Negative Press


Adding Evidence to Policy...


The ensuing investigation by the FBI and its partners—code-named “Amerithrax”—has been one of the largest and most complex in the history of law enforcement.

In August 2008, Department of Justice and FBI officials announced a breakthrough in the case and released documents and information showing that charges were about to be brought against Dr. Bruce Ivins, who took his own life before those charges could be filed.

A public release of evidence regarding a suspect who has not been charged is uncommon, but was undertaken in this case because of the extraordinary public interest in the investigation and, because of Ivins’ death, the government would be unable to take the case to trial and present its evidence.

Established network in all provinces

Security Upgrades VRI Peshawar

Biosafety Association

Engaging scientists
>1,000 trained on best lab practices, safety, security

U.S.-Pakistan S&T Agreement:
Collaborative projects co-funded at key institutes

Cooperation Highlights

Veterinary Research Institute:

-Little biocontaiment

-22 Vaccines:
Anthrax spore, H5NI, FMD, Rabies, Goat pox, fowl pox, Listeriosis, Enterotoxaemia

-Little international collaboration




Defense Science and Technology (DESTO)

Ministry of Agriculture

Ministry of Health

Ministry of Science and Technology

Ministry of Planning and Development

University Bio Labs- Quaid-i-Azam University


Pakistan 2007

Avian/ Pandemic Influenza

Biocontainment Expansion

Active Terrorist Groups

Largest Muslim Democracy

~250M people, 16,000 islands

Strained Relationships with U.S.


Links to JI

Tarnak AQ Document:
Fowl Plague (AI)

Tarnak Farms:
al Q’aida training camp
Kandahar, Afghanistan

Market Research
Business Planning
Technical Assessment

Next generation:

University Bio Labs- Quaid-i-Azam University
Scientists “Isolated, under employed…few opportunites”
“Brain Drain” top concern in Pakistan
Post 9/11 sanctions: No PPE

Quaid Azam University
HPAI cell culturing room

Tb cultures

Center of Advanced Molecular Biology -Toured facilities

King Edward Medical College : Pathology Department and Tb Center

University of Veterinary and Animal Health

Veterinary Research Institute


TB, Hep

- Problem Driven
- Shared interest
- Equal contribution

3) Not Expensive

1) Partnership:

2) Value Added

Catalytic, flexible funding
Market driven and/or host gov sustainable

- Add Expertise
-Share Recognition

Lessons Learned

Viral Isolation- Avian Influenza

“Guns, Guards and Gates”


Ministry of Agriculture (MINFAL)
Anthrax, Brucellosis, HPAI, FMD Facilities
Developing BSL3 (funded) in Islamabad

Pakistan Ag Research Center (PARC)

3) Not Expensive

1) Partnership

2) Value Added

Problem Driven
- Shared interest
- Equal contribution

-Catalytic, flexible funding
-Market driven and/or host gov sustainable

- Add Expertise
-Share Recognition

Lessons Learned

3) Not Expensive


2) Value Added

1) Problem Driven

- Shared interest
- Equal contribution

Catalytic, flexible funding
Market driven and/or host gov sustainable

- Add Expertise
- Shared Recognition

Lessons Learned

Ahmed Zewail


1) Reduce the impact of the left end of the spectrum,
2) Reduce the likelihood of the right half of the spectrum,
3) Provide some transparency regarding capabilities and intent, and
4) Undermine the popular support for terrorism.




Developing Policies that
Address the Spectrum of Bio-Threats


Misuse of
Dual use





Vector: Influenza

Global health,

Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction
WMD- Former Soviet Union

Cold War:
WMD dismantlement,
in the former Soviet Union

Today: Global Partnership,
Smart Power Diplomacy

(a non-traditional career path...)
What is the Threat?
What is the opportunity?
Soon after the terrorist attacks of 9/11/01, letters laced with anthrax began appearing in the U.S. mail. Five Americans were killed, 17 were sickened, and the nation was terrorized in what became the worst biological attacks in U.S. history. ....
Brookings No. 8 March 2005 “Untapped Potential: U.S. Science and Technology Cooperation in the Muslim World.” -Michael Levi and Michael B. D’Arcy
What are the Biological Threats?
-Mother Nature

- Dual Use Technology Misuse
(BSL3 Labs, etc)

- Terrorists & Lone Actors

- State WMD Programs
Short term:
Leverage CTR to prove the model, globally

Long Term:
Influence US Policies on Global Health, and National Security
On Diplomacy?

On Foreign Aid?

On Intel?

On Defense?

How Much Does the U.S. Spend?
Central Themes:
1) Multilateral Frameworks (IHR +BWC)
2) Country Ownership
3) Evidence Based Policy Making
4) Empower Women and Girls
5) Business Model
6) 21st Century Statecraft
"Why global health security is a national priority"
- John Kerry, Kathleen Sebelius, and Lisa Monaco
CNN Wed February 12, 2014
Who was responsible?

Where did the material come from?

Why don't we have better countermeasures?

What legal/policy frameworks are in place?

What if they have more..............??!!
Multilateral Frameworks:
WHO: International Health Regulations

The International Health Regulations (2005) are an international agreement that is legally binding on 194 countries.

The IHR "purpose and scope" is: "to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade".
Biological Weapons Convention
The Convention bans the development, production, stockpiling, acquisition and retention of microbial or other biological agents or toxins, in types and in quantities that have no justification for peaceful purposes.

163 States Parties

Reaffirmed the significance of the “Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War” (Geneva Protocol)…June 17, 1925

*Also see UNSC 1540; legally binding obligations to prevent WMD
Issues to Consider

Optics of IHR vs BWC implementation.


Voluntary reporting?


Top Down Approach & the lone actor...
Full transcript