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WW1 PEACE TREATIES
Transcript of WW1 PEACE TREATIES
areas in Macedonia - Yugoslavia
Western Thrace - Greece Gain of territory
Eastern Thrace - Turkey Size of army
limitations to be placed War indemnity
liable to pay
amount to be determined later by a commission
to be imposed Separation between Austria and Hungary Czechoslovakia recognized as a new state Yugoslavia =
southern Slav lands of the former Empire Loss of territory
Italy (South Tyrol, Trentino and Istria) Forbidden to unite with Germany without the approval of League of Nations Boundaries of Austria to be defined with plebiscite in Southern Carinthia Army size & composition
limitations to be placed War Indemnity
To be imposed
Amount to be determined by a commission The Treaty of Sèvres was signed with the Ottoman Empire after the end of World War One, It decided on the Ottomans losing land. -Germans suffered vast territorial losses:
West Prussia Long-Term Effects of The Treaty -German Military restrictions:
Army restricted to 100,000 men
The general staff was abolished
Navy handed over to Allies In Asia, Turkey renounced sovereignty over Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Palestine (including Transjordan), which became British mandates; Syria (including Lebanon), which became a French mandate; and the kingdom of Hejaz. Russia 290,000 square miles of land
A quarter of the nation’s industry and 90% of its coalmines
Contained the countries of Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Belarus.
Germans intended to form client states under the rule of various aristocrats.
Turkish Lands lost to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 were to be returned to the Ottoman Empire. -Germans solely guilty for the war -Germany had to pay all reparations of the war The French put the influence of crippling penalties against Germany, as they suffered most from the war. USA favored lighter penalties for Germany so that the Germans aren't alienated. Post WW1 Peace Treaties The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe 1918-1933 by Sally Marks, The Peace Conference of 1919 by F.S. Marston, Great Britain, France, and the German Problem 1918-1939 by W.M. Jordan, and Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World by Margaret MacMillan. Treaty of Trianon - Signed by Hungary clearly stated that : “the Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Hungary accepts the responsibility of Hungary and her allies for causing the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Austria-Hungary and her allies.”
- The Austro Hungarian Empire was to be broken up
- Hungary got smaller due to the creation of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and the expansion of Rumania.
-The Hunagrian armed forces had limitations on their size and composition.
- Hungary was to have an indemnity imposed and commision was to determine the amount. Austrian officials protested the violation of the principle of self-determination in the treaty. Concerning: Austrio-Hungary Empire Some historians say that the Austria created by the treaty was financially and militarily weak and therefore a caused a long-lasting force of instability in Europe between the two World Wars. New multi-ethnic states were created with ethnic rivalries and caused problems. Treaty Brest-Litovsk •The treaty remained in effect until November of that year.
•Germany had many territorial gains and took large amounts of manpower to maintain the occupation, decreased the number of men available in duty on the western front.
•November 5, Germany renounced the treaty due to a constant stream of revolutionary propaganda originating from Russia.
•The Bolsheviks terminated the treaty after the German acceptance of the armistice.
•Although they gained independence, Poland and Finland remained frustrated by the loss Baltic States. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Historiography: Soviet historiography insisted that the treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 supported the inclusion of Crimea into Russia. "Russia is bound by this treaty to conclude an immediate peace with the Ukrainian National Republic and recognize the Peace Treaty between this state and the states of the Central Powers. The territory of Ukraine must immediately be freed of all Russian armies and Russian Red Guards. Russia also will cease all agitation or propaganda against the government or social institutions of the Ukrainian National Republic." Historiography: Hungarian and non- Hungarian historians claim that the real motive of the treaty was an attempt to dismantle a major central power in Europe. The Treaty of Versailles Map of The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty of Versailles Historiograhy:
"Treaty of Versailles signalled ‘the death sentence of many millions of German men, women and children" - Antony Lentin Gelfand Stokesbury: Believes "The treaty of Versailles was the worst mistake of the 20th century and the single most disastrous day ever"