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The Civil War 1861-1865

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Janet Hamilton

on 15 May 2014

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Transcript of The Civil War 1861-1865

The Civil War
1861–1865

Image: Fallen soldiers lined up near the Dunker Church during the Battle of Antietam
Bloodiest American War
600,000+ Americans dead
Ended Slavery
Restored the Union

Essential Questions
What social, political, and economic issues tended to divide Americans in the period prior to the Civil War?
What impact did political and military leadership have on the conduct of the war?
How did the war affect minorities during the period (women, free blacks, slaves, immigrants)?
How did the Civil War “make” modern America?
Causes
Fundamental Causes of the War
Sectionalism and states’ rights
Slavery
Economic issues
The Dividing Union
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law
Kansas–Nebraska Act (1854)
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
Cartoon criticizing the Fugitive Slave Law
Dred Scott
The Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln
Republican
Anti-slavery
John C. Breckinridge
Southern Democrat
pro-slavery
Stephen A. Douglas
Northern Democrat
Anti-slavery
John Bell
Constitutional Union Party
slavery-neutral
Electoral Votes in 1860
Secession
South Carolina was first to secede
Several other states followed soon after
Virginia seceded after the Battle of Fort Sumter
Seceding states appear in green
North
South
Federal government was supreme
Loyal to United States
State governments are supreme
Loyal to individual states/regions
Lincoln Won
180 Electoral Votes (59%)
40% of Popular Vote
No Southern Electoral Votes
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
The Creation of the Confederacy
Delegates met in Montgomery, Alabama
Formed the Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis elected president, with Alexander Stephens as vice president
CSA President Jefferson Davis
February 1861
Buchanan’s Inaction
Believed secession was illegal, but that acting to prevent it was also illegal
Decided to let the incoming administration handle the problem
President James Buchanan
Lincoln and Fort Sumter
Confederates demanded that the fort be surrendered
Lincoln received urgent message from Ft. Sumter’s commander
Lincoln faced with dilemma of resupplying Sumter
Decided to send only “food for hungry men”
Fort Sumter
The War Begins
Bombardment began on
April 12, 1861
36 hours later, Anderson forced to surrender to the Confederacy
Painting depicting the bombardment of Fort Sumter
Generals
North
South
The “Anaconda Plan”
The Union’s strategy:
Naval blockade from Louisiana to Virginia
Control of the Mississippi River
Confederate strategy primarily defensive
Cartoon about the “Anaconda Plan”
Advantages & Disadvantages:
The Union
Advantages:
Industry and railroads
Larger population
Legitimate government
Strong political leadership
Disadvantages:
Funding difficulties
Offensive war
Lack of skilled military leaders
A Massachusetts factory
Advantages & Disadvantages:
The Confederacy
Generals Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson
Advantages:
Defensive war on home turf
Common cause
Strong military leaders
Disadvantages:
Weak economy
Smaller population
Ineffective central government and leadership
Advantages & Disadvantages
War Aims: North and South
The North: to preserve the Union
The South: protect states' rights and the southern way of life
Abraham Lincoln
Jefferson Davis
Recruiting Soldiers
Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers for three months’ enlistment
Union also encouraged enlistment with bounties
Some wealthy paid substitutes
New Yorkers line up to enlist
Ethnic Recruitment
Both sides appealed to ethnic pride in order to recruit
Many nationalities joined both sides
Irish Americans among the most common
An enlistment poster aimed at Irish Americans
Bull Run
Manassas, Virginia
First major battle of Civil War
“Stonewall” Jackson earned his nickname & fame
Confederate victory
Rebel Yell
Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson
July 21, 1861
Shiloh
Tennessee
Union forces led by Ulysses S. Grant
Confederate attack nearly wiped out Union forces on first day
Grant counterattacked the next day
Union victory
A view of Shiloh after the battle
April 6-7, 1862
Ironclads
Wooden boat with iron plates welded to hull
Confederates built the
Merrimack
Union built the
Monitor

Monitor
and
Merrimack
fought to a draw in first battle between ironclads
A painting of the battle
March 1862
New Technologies in Warfare
Minie ball
Submarine
Heavy artillery
Aerial reconnaissance
Gatling gun
Trench warfare

A Gatling gun
A New Union Commander
McClellan selected as commander after Bull Run
McClellan popular with troops
A thorough administrator
Overly cautious
Gen. George B. McClellan
Lee Takes Command
General Joseph E. Johnston wounded
Robert E. Lee takes command of Confederate army
Originally offered command of Union army, but turned it down
Gen. Robert E. Lee
Antietam
Attempt by Lee to invade the North
Near Sharpsburg, Maryland
Single bloodiest day in American history
more than 23,000 casualties
Artillery Hell, a painting of early morning hostilities at Antietam
September 17, 1862
Antietam: Battle Scenes
Dead soldiers await burial after the morning fighting in the Miller cornfield
A view of the Burnside Bridge from the “Confederate side”
Confederate dead along the Hagerstown turnpike
Antietam: Aftermath
McClellan fired after Antietam because he did not pursue Lee
Lincoln complained he "had the slows"
McClellan replaced by series of commanders
Lincoln meets with McClellan at Antietam
The Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln announced proclamation after Antietam
Took effect on
January 1, 1863
Freed slaves only in “territories in rebellion”
A cartoon celebrating emancipation
Prelude to Emancipation
Lincoln did not believe he had the authority to end slavery
Every slave working on a plantation allowed a white Southerner to fight
Lincoln saw emancipation as a strategic issue as well as a moral one
Slaves on a South Carolina plantation, 1862
Advantages to Emancipation
Adds abolishing slavery to the Union cause
Causes disorder in the South as slaves learn of their freedom
Kept Britain out of the war
Lincoln discussing emancipation with his cabinet
Women
Women’s Roles in the War
Clara Barton
Mary Bickerdyke
Dorothea Dix
Dr. Mary Edwards Walker
Women Warriors
Some women posed as men in order to fight
Frances Clayton (right) fought in artillery and cavalry units
Total number unknown
Civil War Espionage
Belle Boyd
Pauline Cushman
Rose Greenhow
"My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and it is not to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that."
Politics
Dealing With Dissent
Copperheads
anti-war, pro-confederacy democrats in the North
Led by Rep. Clement Vallandigham of Ohio
Lincoln suspends habeas corpus
Rep. Clement Vallandigham
Soldiers
Manpower for the War
Mostly volunteers
Conscription (military draft) needed to sustain troop levels
In the North, draftees could hire substitutes or pay $300 to opt out
In the South, if an owner of 20 or more slaves was exempt
An illustrated sheet music cover protesting the inequities of the draft
New York Draft Riots
July 1863
Rioters mainly poor whites and Irish immigrants
Opposed to freeing slaves
More than 100 people killed
Rioters loot a New York store
African American Enlistment
Congress allowed black enlistment in 1862
54th Massachusetts commanded by Colonel Shaw
Half of 54th killed in assault on Ft. Wagner
Helped spur further enlistment
Col. Robert Gould Shaw
Memorial to the 54th Massachusetts
Health Conditions
The Sanitary Commission
A Civil War field hospital
Created because of poor health conditions in army camps
Purposes included improving hygiene and recruiting nurses
Developed better methods of transporting wounded to hospitals
Civil War Medicine
Infection often deadlier than the wounds
Amputations more common
Anesthesia widely used
approx. 75% of amputees survived the war
A surgeon at the Camp Letterman field hospital at Gettysburg prepares for an amputation
Andersonville
Confederate POW camp in Georgia
33,000 prisoners jammed into 26 acres
13,000 prisoners died
Union POW camps:
Elmira, New York
Camp Douglas, Illinois
Severely emaciated POWs rescued from Andersonville
Chancellorsville
Jackson’s forces surprised Union troops
Confederates victory
Jackson hit by “friendly fire” and died a week later
Lee pressed on to Pennsylvania
A painting of the battle
May 2-4, 1863
Gettysburg: Prelude
Lee crossed into Pennsylvania
Sent troops for supplies
Confederates encounter Union force outside Gettysburg
Gettysburg battlefield: view from Culp’s Hill
Gettysburg: Day One
July 1, 1863
Buford's Stand
Union General John Buford held high ground at Seminary Ridge
allowed time for reinforcements to arrive
Gettysburg: Day Two
July 2, 1863
Defense of Little Round Top
Col. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
20th Maine repelled Confederates and saved Union position
Colonel (later Major General) Joshua L. Chamberlain
Gettysburg: Day Three
July 3, 1863
"Pickett's Charge"
Lee Ordered Pickett’s forces to attack center of Union lines
resulted in over 6500 Confederate casualties
Lee retreats to Virginia
Artist’s rendition of the battlefield during Pickett’s charge
Impact of Gettysburg
Confederates lost 28,000 men (one-third of army)
Union lost 23,000 men (one-quarter of army)
Town overwhelmed by dead and wounded soldiers
Lee unable to rebuild army
Turning point of the war
A Confederate soldier lies dead at “Devil’s Den”
Gettysburg
July 1-3, 1863
Siege of Vicksburg
Key to total Union control of the Mississippi River
Several attempts by Grant to take the city failed
Grant bombarded the city for two months
Vicksburg, Mississippi fell on
July 4, 1863
Union troops surround Vicksburg during the siege
The Gettysburg Address
Lincoln gave a 2-minute speech at the dedication ceremony of the 1st National Cemetery at Gettysburg
"Four score and seven years ago....."
The only known picture of Lincoln (lower center) at the Gettysburg Cemetery dedication
November 19, 1863
Ulysses S. Grant & The "Wilderness Campaign"
Grant was given command of all Union forces by mid-1864
Grant came to support “total war”
Sought to crush Lee’s army in Virginia
fought near Fredericksburg, VA
Grant criticized for taking high losses
Grant at Cold Harbor during the Wilderness Campaign
Sherman’s “March to the Sea”
Sherman sought to break the South’s ability to make war
Captured Atlanta in
September

1864

Led the March to the Sea from Atlanta to Savannah
Took Savannah by
Christmas 1864
Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman
Election of 1864
Lincoln sought reelection
Democrats nominated McClellan
Union victories helped Republican campaign
Lincoln won by large margin
A political cartoon shows Lincoln and Davis tearing a U.S. map while McClellan tries to intercede
Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address

Promised not to interfere with slavery where it already existed
Attempted to reconcile with the South
A crowd listens to Lincoln’s speech at the Capitol building
March 4, 1861
"I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so."
"
In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors.

You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to 'preserve, protect, and defend it'...
We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching, from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union.
Battles
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural
Lincoln addresses the crowd at his second inauguration. It is believed that John Wilkes Booth is the figure at top row center.
The Fall of Richmond
April 1865
Jefferson Davis ordered evacuation of the Confederate Capital
Union forces took Richmond
April 3, 1865
The remains of buildings after the Union invasion, April 1865
The 13th Amendment

Approved by Congress in January 1865
Ratified by 27 states by December 1865
Abolished “involuntary servitude” (slavery)
Illustration depicting the Senate debate over the 13th Amendment
Surrender at Appomattox
An artist’s rendition of the meeting
Lee surrenders to Grant in Appomattox Court House, Virginia on
April 9, 1865
Surrender Terms:
Lee's soldiers pardoned
allowed to keep their personal possessions
Post War
Lincoln’s Assassination
April 14, 1865, at Ford’s Theater
Shot by actor John Wilkes Booth
Booth killed 12 days later
Vice President Andrew Johnson became president
An illustration of Lincoln’s assassination
Impact of the War
Freedmen disinter bodies of soldiers killed at Cold Harbor for reburial after the war
Impact of the War: the Union
111,000 killed in action
250,000 killed by non-military causes (mostly disease)
Over 275,000 wounded
Financial Cost: $4.09 Billion ($96.5 Billion today)
Union dead at Gettysburg
Impact of the War:
the Confederacy
93,000 killed in battle
165,000 killed by non-military causes
Over 137,000 wounded
Financial Cost: $2.10 billion ($49.5 Billion today)
Destruction in Atlanta after Sherman’s troops took the city
The Road to Reconstruction
1865-1877: Federal government attempts to rebuild southern society & governments
"Radical Republicans" took control of Congress
Promoted a plan to punish the South for causing the war
President Andrew Johnson
"I would like to borrow McClellan's army if the general himself was not going to use it."
~Abraham Lincoln
"rich man's war, but a poor man's fight"
March 4, 1865
"With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan--to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations."
"It is rather for us to be here dedicated to
the great task
remaining before us...that from these honored dead
we take increased devotion to
that cause for which they
gave the last full measure of devotion
; that we here highly under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
Ku Klux Klan
Established as a Social Club in 1866, Pulaski, Tennessee
Goal: re-establish white supremacy in the South
Disguised themselves in robes & hoods and intimidated or killed African-Americans and white members of Republican Party
14th & 15th Amendments
14th (1868) Right to be a citizen
15th (1870) Right to Vote
Full transcript