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Calling all Doctors

Disease Webquest

Ashley Packard

on 17 April 2018

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Transcript of Calling all Doctors

Calling All Doctors
Click on the following link and select the play button.
You have the white doctor’s coat on and have all of the responsibility. You have the extremely important task of diagnosing these diseases/infections and providing your ideas on how these should be treated.
Think of the person that you are trying to help as a family member or an extremely close friend. Wouldn’t you want the doctor seeing that patient to be as well trained as possible?
To do this, you will learn information about the causes and effects of AIDS, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension on the human body. You will relate common diseases like colds, influenza, strep throat, dysentery, and ringworm to the organisms that cause them. You will be applying this knowledge to help you with your diagnosis and treatment recommendations.
Remember the differences between an infectious and noninfectious disease.
Infectious means it is contagious (can be spread) Examples: cold, flu, strep throat, etc.
While noninfectious means it cannot be spread (is not contagious) Examples: cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure
Does this knowledge affect the diagnosis and treatment options that you recommend? If so, how does it affect these options?
You will also be applying your knowledge of how antibiotics and vaccines are used in the treatment and prevention of diseases.
Learning Goals:
Students will be able to...
1. Be able to explain the causes and effects of diseases on the human body
2. Relate some common diseases to the organisms that cause them
3. Understand the difference between infectious and noninfectious diseases
4. Explain the role of antibiotics and vaccines in the treatment and prevention of diseases
1. What causes AIDS?
5. How is the disease treated?
4. What are the effects or symptoms of the disease?
3. How is this disease transferred from person to person?
2. Is this disease infectious or noninfectious?

Early Symptoms
In the initial stages of HIV infection, most people will have very few, if any, symptoms. Within a month or two after infection, individuals may experience a flu-like illness, including:
Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck and groin area

These symptoms usually disappear within a week to a month and are often mistaken for another viral infection, such as influenza (flu). However, during this period people are highly infectious because HIV is present in large quantities in genital fluids and blood. Some people infected with HIV may experience more severe symptoms initially or a longer duration of clinical symptoms, while others may remain symptom-free for 10 years or more.

Later Symptoms
During the late stages of HIV infection, the virus severely weakens the immune system, and people infected with the virus may experience the following symptoms:
Rapid weight loss
Recurring fever or profuse night sweats
Extreme and unexplained fatigue
Prolonged swelling of the lymph glands in the armpits, groin or neck
Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week
Sores of the mouth, anus or genitals
Red, brown, pink or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose or eyelids
Memory loss, depression and other neurological disorders.

Each of these symptoms can be related to other illnesses. The only way to determine if you are infected with HIV is to get tested.
Treatment of HIV Infection
Photo of a variety of different drug treatments. Credit: NIAID. In the early 1980s when the HIV/AIDS epidemic began, people with AIDS were not likely to live longer than a few years.

Today, there are 31
antiretroviral drugs (ARVs)
approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat HIV infection. These treatments do not cure people of HIV or AIDS. Rather, they suppress the virus, even to undetectable levels, but they do not completely eliminate HIV from the body.

By suppressing the amount of virus in the body, people infected with HIV can now lead longer and healthier lives. However, they can still transmit the virus and must continuously take antiretroviral drugs in order to maintain their health quality.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Structure of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, courtesy of NIAID.
What is HIV?

To understand what HIV is, let’s break it down:

– because this virus can only infect human beings.


– because the virus creates a weakened immune system by destroying white blood cells (immune system cells) called T-cells or CD4 cells.


– because the organism is a virus and is incapable of reproducing itself without help from specific cells in the human body.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus
” is a very tiny virus, much like other viruses you may be familiar with, such as the viruses that cause the “flu” or the common cold. However, HIV is different from other viruses because the immune system can never fully get rid of it. The virus hides in the immune system and other cells in the body.

HIV causes significant damage to the immune system, leaving it open to other dangerous infections. HIV infection can lead to AIDS.
What is AIDS?

To understand what AIDS is, let’s break it down:

– because AIDS is a disease that is not hereditary but develops from contact with, or infection by, a disease-causing agent (in this case, HIV).

– because AIDS affects the body's immune system, which includes all the organs and cells that work to fight off infection or foreign substances.

– because HIV makes the immune system unable to function properly.

– because AIDS is a complex illness with a wide range of complications and symptoms.

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
” is the final stage of HIV infection. People at this stage of HIV disease are vulnerable to opportunistic infections. When someone has one or more specific infections, certain cancers, or a very low number of T-cells, the person is considered to have AIDS. A person with AIDS requires medical intervention and treatment to prevent death.
Which body fluids contain HIV?

HIV is a virus that lives and reproduces in blood and other fluids in the body.
Transmission of these bodily fluids from one person to another can cause infection.
HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, sharing needles, or occupational exposure.

Fluids that are known to contain high concentrations of HIV include:
Breast milk
Vaginal fluids
Rectal mucous

HIV has been found in small amounts in tears, saliva, and urine, but these fluids have NOT been shown to transmit HIV.

HIV has NOT been found in human sweat.
When cancer cells get into the bloodstream or lymph vessels, they can travel to other parts of the body. There they begin to grow and form new tumors that replace normal tissue. This process is called metastasis (muh-tas-tuh-sis).

No matter where a cancer may spread, it is always named for the place where it started. For instance, breast cancer that has spread to the liver is still called breast cancer, not liver cancer. Likewise, prostate cancer that has spread to the bone is called metastatic prostate cancer, not bone cancer.

Different types of cancer can behave very differently. For example, lung cancer and breast cancer are very different diseases. They grow at different rates and respond to different treatments. That is why people with cancer need treatment that is aimed at their own kind of cancer.

Not all tumors are cancerous. Tumors that aren't cancer are called benign (be-nine). Benign tumors can cause problems – they can grow very large and press on healthy organs and tissues. But they cannot grow into other tissues. Because of this, they also can't spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). These tumors are almost never life threatening.
Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer
There are over 200 types of cancer. For your research purposes, skin cancer will be your focus. The specific type of skin cancer you will be investigating is basal and squamous cell skin cancer.
1. What causes skin cancer?
5. How is the disease treated?
4. What are the effects or symptoms of the disease?
3. How is this disease transferred from person to person?
2. Is this disease infectious or noninfectious?

Chronic exposure to sunlight

causes most cases of squamous cell carcinoma.
Frequent use of tanning beds
also multiplies the risk of squamous cell carcinoma; people who use tanning beds are 2.5 times more likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma than those who don’t. But
skin injuries are another important source
. The cancer can arise in burns, scars, ulcers, long-standing sores and sites previously exposed to X-rays or certain chemicals (such as arsenic and petroleum by-products).

Chronic infections and skin inflammation
can also give rise to squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, HIV and other immune deficiency diseases, chemotherapy, anti-rejection drugs used in organ transplantation, and even excessive sun exposure itself all weaken the immune system, making it harder to fight off disease and thus increasing the risk of squamous cell carcinoma and other skin cancers.

Occasionally, squamous cell carcinomas arise spontaneously on what appears to be normal, healthy skin. Some researchers believe the tendency to develop these cancers can be inherited.
Cancer-Background Information
The body is made up of hundreds of millions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly way. During the early years of a person's life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. After the person becomes an adult, most cells divide only to replace worn-out, damaged, or dying cells.

Cancer begins when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control.
There are many kinds of cancer, but they all start because of this out-of-control growth of abnormal cells.

Cancer cell growth is different from normal cell growth. Instead of dying, cancer cells keep on growing and form new cancer cells. These cancer cells can grow into (invade) other tissues, something that normal cells cannot do. Being able to grow out of control and invade other tissues are what makes a cell a cancer cell.
In most cases the cancer cells form a tumor. But some cancers, like leukemia, rarely form tumors. Instead, these cancer cells are in the blood and blood-forming organs.
A risk factor is anything that affects a person's chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be controlled. Others, like a person's age or family history, can't be changed.

But risk factors don't tell us everything. Having a risk factor, or even several risk factors, does not mean that you will get the disease. And many people who get the disease may not have had any known risk factors. Even if a person with basal or squamous cell skin cancer has a risk factor, it is often very hard to know what part that risk factor may have played in getting the cancer.
Effects and Symptoms
The key warning signs are
a new growth
a spot or bump that's getting larger
a sore that doesn't heal within 3 months

Skin cancers often don't cause symptoms until they become quite large. Then they can bleed or even hurt.

Basal cell carcinomas often appear as
flat, firm, pale areas or as small, raised, pink or red, translucent, shiny, waxy areas that may bleed after minor injury
. You might see one or more abnormal blood vessels, a depressed area in the center, or blue, brown, or black areas. Large ones may have oozing or crusted spots.

Squamous cell cancer may appear as
growing lumps, often with a rough surface, or as flat, reddish patches that grow slowly.

Both of these types of skin cancer may develop as a
flat area showing only slight changes from normal skin.
Squamous cell carcinomas detected at an early stage and removed promptly are almost always curable and cause minimal damage. However, left untreated, they eventually penetrate the underlying tissues and can become disfiguring. A small percentage even metastasize to distant tissues and organs and can become fatal. Therefore, any suspicious growth should be seen by a physician without delay. A tissue sample (biopsy) will be examined under a microscope to arrive at a diagnosis. If tumor cells are present, treatment is required.

Fortunately, there are several effective ways to get rid of squamous cell carcinoma. The choice of treatment is based on the type, size, location, and depth of the tumor, as well as the patient’s age and general health.

Treatment Options:
Surgery (scraping or cutting out)
Cryosurgery (freezing)
Topical (apply on the skin) Medications
Treatment Options
1. What causes type 2 diabetes?
5. How is the disease treated?
4. What are the effects or symptoms of the disease?
3. How is this disease transferred from person to person?
2. Is this disease infectious or noninfectious?
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, either
the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin
. Insulin is necessary for the body to be able to use glucose for energy. When you eat food, the body breaks down all of the sugars and starches into glucose, which is the basic fuel for the cells in the body. Insulin takes the sugar from the blood into the cells.

When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, it can cause two problems:
Right away, your cells may be starved for energy.
Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart
Some of the following may be symptoms of diabetes:
Frequent urination
Excessive thirst
Unexplained weight loss
Extreme hunger
Sudden vision changes
Tingling or numbness in hands or feet
Feeling very tired much of the time
Very dry skin
Sores that are slow to heal
More infections than usual.
Healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing
are the basic therapies for type 2 diabetes. In addition, many people with type 2 diabetes require
oral medication, insulin, or both
to control their blood glucose levels.

People with diabetes must take responsibility for their day-to-day care, and keep blood glucose levels from going too low or too high.

People with diabetes
should see a health care provider who will monitor their diabetes control and help them learn to manage their diabetes
. In addition, people with diabetes may see endocrinologists, who may specialize in diabetes care; ophthalmologists for eye examinations; podiatrists for routine foot care; and dietitians and diabetes educators who teach the skills needed for daily diabetes management.
Type 2
Type 2 Diabetes is

Your genetics and your environment may increase your risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
High blood pressure (HBP) or hypertension means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Arteries are vessels that carry blood from the pumping heart to all the tissues and organs of the body.

Normal blood pressure is below 120/80; blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/89 is called "pre-hypertension", and a blood pressure of 140/90 or above is considered high.
1. What causes type hypertension?
5. How is the disease treated?
4. What are the effects or symptoms of the disease?
3. How is this disease transferred from person to person?
2. Is this disease infectious or noninfectious?
Two forms of high blood pressure have been described: essential (or primary) hypertension and secondary hypertension. Essential hypertension is a far more common condition and accounts for 95% of hypertension. The cause of essential hypertension is multifactorial, that is, there are several factors whose combined effects produce hypertension.

Factors that may cause hypertension:
High salt intake
Advancing age
Hereditary/genetic susceptibility
Kidney failure
*Risk of hypertension is also higher for African Americans.
Treatment Options:

1. Lifestyle changes
a. Eat healthy foods
(low fat, high fruits and vegetables)
b. decrease salt in the diet).
c. Maintain a healthy weight
d. Increase physical activity

2. Medication
Effects or Symptoms
Uncomplicated high blood pressure usually occurs without any symptoms (silently) and so hypertension has been labeled "the silent killer."
It is called this because the disease can progress to finally develop any one or more of the several potentially fatal complications of hypertension such as heart attacks or strokes. Uncomplicated hypertension may be present and remain unnoticed for many years, or even decades. This happens when there are no symptoms, and those affected fail to undergo periodic blood pressure screening.

Some people
with uncomplicated hypertension, however,
may experience symptoms such as headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, and blurred vision.
The presence of symptoms can be a good thing in that they can prompt people to consult a doctor for treatment and make them more compliant in taking their medications. Often, however, a person's first contact with a physician may be after
significant damage to
the end-
has occurred. In many cases, a person visits or is brought to the doctor or an emergency room with a
heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, or impaired vision
(due to damage to the back part of the retina). Greater public awareness and frequent blood pressure screening may help to identify patients with undiagnosed high blood pressure before significant complications have developed.
Experimental vaccines have been used to treat certain types of rhinoviruses, but a vaccine is not available to treat the common cold.
The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms while the virus runs its course.
Get plenty of rest and drink lots of fluids.
Over-the-counter cold remedies may help ease your symptoms. These won't actually shorten the length of a cold, but can help you feel better.
Antibiotics should not be used to treat a common cold. They will not help and may make the situation worse. Thick yellow or green nasal discharge is not a reason for antibiotics, unless it doesn't get better within 10 to 14 days. (In this case, it may be a sinus infection called sinusitis.)
Alternative treatments that have also been used include:
Vitamin C
The common cold is an acute
viral infection
of the upper respiratory tract that affects the nose, throat, sinuses, larynx, and sometimes the lungs.

Varieties of
and coronavirus are the most common causes. These viruses are
easily transmitted
through contact with the secretions of infected people (e.g., handshakes, shared objects, kissing).

Once the virus enters the body, it multiplies in the cells (often at the back of the nose) and
causes an inflammatory response
that produces characteristic
symptoms such as excessive mucus
(probably in an attempt to rid the body of the virus) and
swollen airways
1. What causes a cold?
5. How is the disease treated?
4. What are the effects or symptoms of the disease?
3. How is this disease transferred from person to person?
2. Is this disease infectious or noninfectious?
Effects & Symptoms
The three most frequent symptoms of a cold are:
Nasal congestion
Runny nose

Adults and older children with colds generally have a low fever or no fever.

Young children, however, often run a fever around 100-102°F.

Once you have "caught" a cold, the symptoms usually begin in 2 or 3 days, though it may take a week. Typically,
an irritated nose or scratchy throat is the first sign, followed within hours by sneezing and a watery nasal discharge

Within 1 to 3 days,
the nasal secretions usually become thicker and perhaps yellow or green
. This is a normal part of the common cold and not a reason for antibiotics.
The common cold is
transmitted through person-to-person contact
, typically when an infected person touches the eyes, mouth, or inside of the nose and spreads the virus to the hands.

Poor hygiene promotes infection.

Kissing and sharing eating utensils with an infected person are common modes of transmission.

Malnourishment and exposure to cold weather or rain do not cause a cold.
Depending on which virus is causing the symptoms, the virus might also cause:

Decreased appetite
Muscle aches
Postnasal drip
Sore throat

Still, if it is indeed a cold, the main symptoms will be in the nose.

*The entire cold is usually over in about 7 days.*
1. What causes influenza?
5. How is the disease treated?
4. What are the effects or symptoms of the disease?
3. How is this disease transferred from person to person?
2. Is this disease infectious or noninfectious?
Prevent Fluid Loss

Treat Symptoms including

Bringing down a fever will make the person feel better and help patients rest.

Dry Cough
Coughing can help clear out mucous and congestion from your lungs. Yet, dry coughs when there is no mucous can make your airways, throat, or chest sore. Treating a dry cough can stop this sore feeling and also help you get rest.
cough medicines or cough drops
Set up a humidifier

Other Flu Symptoms
Influenza (also known as the flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by flu viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death.
The flu is different from a cold.
The flu usually comes on suddenly and may include these symptoms:
Sore throat
Runny or stuffy nose
Body aches
Sometimes diarrhea and vomiting

* It’s important to note that not everyone with flu will have a fever. Fever can sometimes be high.

Having these symptoms does not always mean that you have the flu. Many different illnesses, including the common cold, can have similar symptoms.
Preventing Seasonal Flu: Get Vaccinated
The single best way to prevent seasonal flu is to get a seasonal flu vaccination each year. There are two types of flu vaccines:

A seasonal flu vaccine will not protect you against the new 2009 H1N1 flu. A vaccine against the new H1N1 flu is being produced.

"flu shot"
– an inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus) that is given with a needle. The seasonal flu shot is approved for use in people 6 months of age and older, including healthy people and people with chronic medical conditions.

nasal-spray flu vaccine
– a vaccine made with live, weakened flu viruses that do not cause the flu (sometimes called LAIV for "Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine"). LAIV is approved for use in healthy* people 2-49 years of age who are not pregnant.

About two weeks after vaccination, antibodies develop that protect against influenza virus infection.
Flu vaccines will not protect against flu-like illnesses caused by non-influenza viruses.
Influenza (the flu) is a
respiratory illness
caused by influenza viruses
. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The best way to prevent seasonal flu is by getting a seasonal flu vaccination each year.

Each year in the United States on average, 5% to 20% of the population gets the flu; on average, more than 200,000 people are hospitalized from flu-related complications, and; about 36,000 people die from flu-related causes. Some people, such as older people, young children, and people with certain health conditions, are at high risk for serious flu complications.

There are two main types of influenza (flu) virus: Types A and B.
Influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people (human influenza viruses) are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year.
Flu viruses are thought to
spread mainly
from person to person
through coughing or sneezing of people with influenza (in respiratory droplets of coughs and sneezes, called "droplet spread.")

Sometimes people may become infected
by touching something with flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose

Most healthy adults may be able to infect others beginning 1 day before symptoms develop and up to 5-7 days after becoming sick. That means that you may be able to pass on the flu to someone else before you know you are sick, as well as while you are sick.
Knowledge of strep throat symptoms can help differentiating it from sore throat or tonsillitis and get professional help quickly, thus it is important to bear in mind the following information. The first symptoms of strep throat usually appear within two or three days since the infection. Among the most noticeable strep throat symptoms there are:
Difficulty swallowing
Enlarged, red tonsils
White spots on tonsils
Muscle aches
Abdominal pain (with vomiting in case of younger children)
Nausea and loss of appetite
Cold chills
Throat pain
Strep throat – general information:
Strep throat is a contagious bacterial infection caused by the streptococcal bacteria. Strep throat is often confused with sore throat or tonsillitis, however, the two are not bacterial infections and the best cure for them is simply to wait till they end while strep throat can be treated with antibiotics. Antibiotics treatment usually quickly brings results and prevents the infection from spreading. Moreover, sore throat is often connected with fever and does not lead to complications, but untreated strep throat can lead to rheumatic fever which can subsequently cause inflamed and painful joints, or even damage to heart valves. Furthermore, strep throat can have so severe complications as to lead to kidney inflammation.
1. What causes strep throat?
5. How is the disease treated?
4. What are the effects or symptoms of the disease?
3. How is this disease transferred from person to person?
2. Is this disease infectious or noninfectious?
Causes – Infectious – Transfer
The cause of strep throat is bacteria known as
(strep) pyogenes, or group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus.

The bacteria are
extremely contagious
and can spread from one infected person to another through airborne droplets when the infected person sneezes or coughs. Additionally, the bacteria may be transmitted on kitchen utensils, bathroom objects at home, or on books and stationery at school.

Unlike sore throat strep throat is caused by bacteria, therefore it can be treated with antibiotics.
The most effective medicine for strep throat are
. Doctors usually prescribe
, which in some cases may be given in the form of injections, but in most cases it is enough to take pills.
The medicine depends on the severity of infection and the age of the patient.

Along with the antibiotics
doctors may suggest some additional medicine in order to decrease fever and relieve throat pain
. However young children should avoid aspirin as taking it might lead to additional complications.
Dysentery is the body's response to an unwanted visitor in the digestive system.

This could be caused by:

A protist (amoeba) - Entamoeba histolytica

Bacteria - salmonella or shigella
Dysentery is not a disease but a symptom of a potentially deadly illness. The term refers to any case of infectious bloody diarrhea, a scourge that kills as many as 700,000 people worldwide every year. Most of the victims live in developing areas with poor sanitation, but cases can pop up anywhere in the world.
1. What causes dysentery?
5. How is the disease treated?
4. What are the effects or symptoms of the disease?
3. How is this disease transferred from person to person?
2. Is this disease infectious or noninfectious?
Infectious - Transfer
The E. histolytica amoeba and the shigella bacteria often thrive in food and water contaminated by human feces.

Large outbreaks of bacillary dysentery have occurred in communities where sewage mixes with drinking water.
Fruits and vegetables grown with contaminated water are another common source of disease.

Infections can also spread through households when people don't wash their hands after using the bathroom, after changing diapers, or before handling food. Shigella infections tend to be especially contagious.
People sick with amebic dysentery (caused by the protist) often suffer profuse,
bloody diarrhea
along with a
intense stomach pain
, and
rapid weight loss

Bacillary dysentery (caused by the bacteria) causes
small, frequent stools mixed with blood and mucus
Cramps are common
, and
a patient may occasionally strain painfully, without success, to evacuate the bowels
Anyone with bloody diarrhea needs immediate medical help.
Treatment often starts with an oral rehydrating solution
-- water mixed with salt and carbohydrates -- to prevent dehydration. (hospital admission may be required for intravenous fluid replacement – or IV)

If the disease is caused by an amoeba, the patient will need to take
to kill off the amoeba.

If the disease is caused by bacteria, you will need an
Infectious - Transfer
Tinea corporis is
. You can catch the condition if you come into
direct contact with someone who is infected, or if you touch contaminated items
such as:

Pool surfaces
Shower floors and walls
The fungi can also be spread by pets
(cats are common carriers).
Ringworm, known in medical terms as tinea corporis, is actually not caused by a worm, but by a fungus. Tinea corporis refers to a skin infection (caused by fungus) that can be found anywhere on the body. Ringworm occurs more commonly in warm, tropical environments, affects men and women equally, and affects all ages equally.
1. What causes ringworm?
5. How is the disease treated?
4. What are the effects or symptoms of the disease?
3. How is this disease transferred from person to person?
2. Is this disease infectious or noninfectious?
Tinea corporis (often called ringworm of the body) is a common skin disorder, especially among children. However, it may occur in people of all ages.
It is caused by mold-like fungi
called dermatophytes.

Fungi thrive in warm, moist areas.
The following raise your risk for a fungal infection:
Long-term wetness of the skin (such as from sweating)
Minor skin and nail injuries
Poor hygiene
Symptoms include itching and a ring-shaped, red-colored skin rash.
The rash may occur on the arms, legs, face, or other exposed body areas. The border of the rash lesions look scaly.
Keep the skin clean and dry. Over-the-counter antifungal creams
, such as those that contain miconazole, clotrimazole, or similar ingredients, are often effective in controlling ringworm.

Severe or chronic infection may need further treatment by your health care provider.

Infected pets should also be treated.

Ringworm usually responds to topical medications within 4 weeks. Severe or resistant cases usually respond quickly to antifungal medicines taken by mouth.
A virus is a small infectious agent that can only replicate inside the cells of another organism.
Watch the following video and see what you know about bacteria!
An infectious disease is caused by a pathogen, such as a virus, bacteria or a fungus. This type of disease can be spread from one person to another, or from one species to another. The infection can be spread through via air, bodily fluids, food, drink or by touch.
For the following video:
1. Pause the video after the explanation of the acronym A.I.D.S.
2. Jump ahead to the definition of AIDS (red screen - "Less than 200 white blood cells")
Is this disease infectious or noninfectious?
fight bacteria either by killing them or by preventing them from multiplying.

Find additional information about
by going to the link below and reading all about

works by exposing you to a small dose of the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity (resistance) to the disease.

will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body.

Find additional information about
by clicking on the following link to learn more!
*Note: In this article, it references "germs". In the case of a vaccine, a germ is always a virus!

Dr. Smith are you ready to diagnose and treat patients?
Using the information you compiled on your Disease Chart...
You will complete your "Dr. Smith: Diagnosing the Patients" Chart by listening closely to the following patients and being the doctor they need you to be.
Look at all of the information carefully, so that you can:
1. Diagnose the patient.
2. Support your diagnosis with facts.
3. Prescribe a treatment for your patient.
Dr. Smith...
Jared is here to see you now...
Jared comes to you and complains of red marks in between his toes.
He says they are itchy. He has been going to wrestling practice, and after practice, he has been taking showers at the school.
Here is a picture of what he has:
Patient #1: Jared
What does Jared have?
How would you treat it?
Stephanie comes to you complaining of a sore throat.
She describes it as a scratchy throat.
She has only had it for a couple of days.
She has a runny nose and has been coughing and sneezing.
Patient #2: Stephanie
She is running a low-grade temperature of 99.9 degrees Fahrenheit.
She says that she has been feeling run down for the last few days and only wants to sleep.
The congestion in her nose is getting thicker as the days go on.
She says it is hard to breath through her nose.
Stephanie said she did not get a flu shot this year.
What does Stephanie have?
How would you treat it?
Tom comes in complaining of a sore throat.
He describes it as a scratchy throat.
He has only had it for a couple of days.
He has a runny nose and has been coughing and sneezing.
Patient #3: Tom
He is running a fever of 101 degrees Fahrenheit.
He has a headache.
His cough is a dry cough which means that when he coughs nothing is coming up or out.
He has muscle aches and complains about being really run down and tired lately.
Tom said he did not get a flu shot this year.
What does Tom have?
How would you treat it?
In the middle of April, Vicky comes in complaining of a sore throat.
She describes it as a scratchy throat.
She has had it for four weeks.
Patient #4: Vicky
She has a runny nose and has been coughing and sneezing.
Her eyes are itchy, watery, and red.
She does not have a fever.
What does Vicky have?
How would you treat it?
Steven comes in complaining of a severe sore throat.
He has had it for almost 3 days.
He has DOES NOT HAVE a runny nose, and he has not been coughing or sneezing.
Patient #5: Steven
Steven is running a fever of 101 degrees Fahrenheit.
The lymph nodes in his neck are swollen and tender.
As the doctor, you decide to swab Steven’s throat to check for strep throat.
You use a rapid strep test.
The results are ready in five to 10 minutes, but the test doesn't pick up all cases of strep.
Those results are NEGATIVE, so you send the throat culture to the lab.
This takes a couple days to complete, but is more accurate.
Here is what Steven’s throat looks like:
What does Steven have?
How would you treat it?
Lindsey was complaining about these symptoms: fever, headache, being extremely tired.
When you checked her lymph nodes, you noticed that they were enlarged in her neck area.
She said that her lymph nodes had been swollen for almost 3 weeks.
Patient #6: Lindsey
She had been suffering from these symptoms for about a month.
She was beginning to lose weight.
She was having night sweats.
As the doctor, you decide to draw some blood and run some tests.
The tests results show that the number of white blood cells (specifically T cells) are at a significantly lower level than they should be.
What does Lindsey have?
How would you treat it?
Paul comes in complaining of the following symptoms that have been occurring for the past month:
He is tired all of the time.
He is always thirsty.
He has been very hungry.
He urinates a lot more than he used to.
He is having problems with his eyes.
Patient #7: Paul
As you talk with Paul, he tells you:
In high school, Paul was a great football player.
He lifted weights and ran miles without any trouble.
In college, he played some intramural sports, but he did not train like he did in high school.
Now that he has a job and a family, Paul cannot find the time to work out.
He eats too much.
Since his high school football playing days, his weight has gone up significantly.
What does Paul have?
How would you treat it?
Angie complained of these symptoms:
Massive stomach pain
Weight loss
Patient #8: Angie
At first, she thought it was the flu, but she thinks that it has been going on for too long to be that (about a week).
As you talk with her, she recently got back from a mission trip to Haiti to help out with the earthquake tragedy.
While down there, she sometimes would drink water that was not bottled and was out of the tap.
What does Angie have?
How would you treat it?
Cameron describes these symptoms:
shortness of breath
blurred vision
He has been having problems with his eyes (he has seen a drastic decrease in how clearly he sees things both near and far away)
Patient #9: Cameron
In Cameron’s family, there is a history of heart disease.
Cameron is 55 years old.
For his height, he is overweight (obese).
He describes his diet as being very high in salt.
What does Cameron have?
How would you treat it?
Courtney comes in complaining of red patches on her cheeks that will not go away or stop growing.
They have a rough texture.
Courtney tells you that she has had these for about three months.
She describes herself as an avid sun tanner. She loves to lay out in the summer, and she is in the tanning bed during the winter months.
Patient #10: Courtney
What does Courtney have?
How would you treat it?
Patient #1: Jared
Patient #2: Stephanie
Patient #3: Tom
Patient #4: Vicky
Patient #5: Steven
Patient #6: Lindsey
Patient #7: Paul
Patient #8: Angie
Patient #9: Cameron
Patient #10: Courtney
Well, your work here is almost finished...
You have listened to each of these 10 patients and diagnosed them to the best of your ability.
All that is left...
Is to find out whether you were
You will use the following information about your patients to fill in the last two columns of your "Dr. Smith: Diagnosing the Patients" chart.
When you check Cameron’s blood pressure, it is very high.
Cameron is diagnosed with hypertension (high blood pressure).
After doing further tests, you find out that he has some eye damage (in his retinas).
He is at risk for a heart attack or stroke.
Patient #9: Cameron
After looking at the patches under a magnifying device, you diagnose them as squamous cell cancer.
You recommend a dermatologist to continue her treatment.
The dermatologist uses liquid nitrogen to freeze the patches off of her face.
Patient #10: Courtney
Dr. Smith Diagnosing the Patients: Answers
Jared has athlete’s foot which is a fungal infection just like ringworm.
Fungal infections are named after the location on the body where they are located, like jock itch.
Patient #1: Jared
Stephanie has the common cold.
Since colds are a virus, they cannot be treated by antibiotics.
You have to treat the symptoms.
Patient #2: Stephanie
Tom has the flu.
Since the different types of the flu are all viral (caused by a virus), they cannot be treated by antibiotics.
Because Tom already has the flu, he cannot get the vaccine for it. It will not do any good.
Patient #3: Tom
Vicky is suffering from allergies. Allergies have very similar characteristics to colds and flu.
You would not be able to tell from what she described to you, but she is allergic to pollen.
Patient #4: Vicky
In two days, the lab results come back that Steven has strep throat which is caused by Group A Streptococcus bacteria.
Patient #5: Steven
Because strep throat is caused by bacteria, it can be treated with antibiotics (like penicillin, amoxicillin, or azythromycin)
Steven needs to take antibiotics for 10 days.
He should start feeling better within 24 to 48 hours from when he starts to take the antibiotics.
Once his fever and other symptoms are gone, he is no longer contagious.
Unfortunately, Lindsey has contracted HIV through unsafe sexual practices.
Since HIV is a virus, you begin her on a treatment regimen of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and must continuously take these for the rest of her life.
Patient #6: Lindsey
Paul is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. His unhealthy weight, eating habits, and lack of exercise have started to cause him health problems.
He started working with you (the doctor) on getting his blood glucose (sugar levels) under control. To do this, you prescribed oral (by mouth) medication and insulin.
Paul worked with a nutritionist to change his eating habits, and he began to work with a personal trainer to help him get back in shape.
Patient #7: Paul
After running some tests, you find out that Angie has dysentery caused by the bacteria Salmonella.
She consumed the bacteria in the unclean water in Haiti.
Because it is a bacteria, you can treat it with an antibiotic.
You hook her up to an IV (intravenous), so you can give her fluids and electrolytes (carbohydrates).
Patient #8: Angie
Jared could have gotten this from the wrestling mats or from the school shower.
Jared can be treated with antifungal cream and making sure to keep the area cool and dry.
She can be treated with over-the-counter medicines to treat the symptoms, like cough medicine, decongestants, throat lozenges.
She needs to rest and take in plenty of fluids.
Her symptoms should be gone in a week or two.
Tom’s symptoms should be gone in one to two weeks.
Treat the symptoms:
Fever: bring it down with medicine
Dry cough: stop it with cough medicine
Treat the other symptoms (decongestants or antihistamines)
New antiviral medicines might work depending on what type of flu you have
Allergies are caused by an overactive immune system.
For some reason, your body overreacts to substances such as mold or pollen.
It then releases chemicals such as histamine.
This can cause swelling in your nasal passages, a runny nose, coughing, and sneezing.
Allergies are not contagious, although some people may inherit a tendency to develop them.
To treat both cold and allergy symptoms, you can try:
Antihistamines , which block the effects of histamine, a natural substance that causes symptoms such as congestion and a runny nose

Decongestants, which reduce swelling in the mucus membranes of the nasal passages, making you feel less stuffed up.
To treat allergy symptoms, you may also try:
Nasal steroids, which reduce swelling in the nasal passages, relieving congestion and other symptoms

Allergy shots, called immunotherapy, which involves being injected with a small amount of the substance to which you are allergic. Over time, the dose is increased. By exposing you to greater and greater amounts of the allergen, your body may develop a tolerance to it.
1. Lifestyle changes
a. Eat healthy foods
(low fat, high fruits and vegetables)
b. decrease salt in the diet).
c. Maintain a healthy weight
d. Increase physical activity
2. Medication
The dermatologist recommends that she stop her sun tanning ways and begin to use sun screen all of the time.
The dermatologist wants to see her every two months to check her out for any other patches and to check on the ones that were frozen.
Courtney will see the dermatologist every two to three months for the rest of her life.
Congratulations, Dr. Smith. Your work here is done! We couldn't have done it without you!
Once you have completed diagnosing your patients and have checked your answers, I want for you to learn more about the following medical conditions and possible solutions:
Hepatitis C
What is nanotechnology? How can it help in the fight against cancer?
Hepatitis C
Watch as many of these videos as you have time for.
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