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MIx and flow of matter
Transcript of MIx and flow of matter
Blaire, Maham ,Shania, James
Part a: Maham
1) The particle model of matter involves the following key ideas:
- All substances are made of tiny particles.
- All particles in a pure substance are the same. Different pure substance are made of different particles.
- The particles have spaces between them.
- The particles are always in motion - vibrating, rotating and (in liquids and gases) moving from place to place. The speed of particles increases/ decreases when the temperature increases/decreases.
- The particles in a substance are attracted to one another. - -The strength of the attractive force depends on the type of particle.
Part a: Maham
2) The 3 states of matter are:
Solid: The particles of a solid are packed tightly. They are so close that they cannot move freely. These particles can only vibrate.
Liquid: Particles in a liquid slide around each other. They have enough energy to pull away from each other. The particles of a liquid take the shape of their container.
Gas: The particles in a gas are really far apart. They move freely around. Gases always occupy the space they can fill.
Part C: Maham
1) Forming a solution by mixing 2 or more materials is called dissolving. Dissolving happens because when the particles mix they start colliding with the solvent and get mixed together also known as dissolving.
Part C: James
3.)The universal solvent is water, because it can dissolve so many materials. water is also very important to human beings and plants
Part E; shania
2.) Ice cream-Viscosity is important because it allows air bubbles to form in the frozen ice cream,giving it a light,soft consistency. Or else it feels like a block of ice. Chocolate coating- Candy bars must be at precisely the right consistency and temperature in order to cover the bar completely with the same amount of chocolate each time. Some candy coating are especially sensitive to temperature. If the candy were to stay too hot for too long. It might become too hard to bite
Part b: Blaire
Pure substances mixtures
- contain one type of particle - can have two or more
- can be in three states of pure substances in it
matter: Solid, liquid and gas
Elements Compounds Homogeneous Heterogeneous
- examples - examples (solutions) (mechanical Iron, gold, Water, salt, mixtures)
Oxygen sugar -Appear to be two or more
one substanse parts can
-particles of different -Different kinds
substances are of particles
combined stay together
-Examples - examples
vinegar, soil, blood
clear air concrete
Particles . S settle after mixing
particles don’t . . . s settle
part c: Blaire
2.)Solubility: The mass of a solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent to form a saturated solution at a given temperature.
Saturated:a solution which no more solute will dissolve in a specific amount of solvent as a specific temperature.
supersaturated: a solution that contains more solute than would normally dissolve at a certain temperature.
Unsaturated: a solution in which more of the solute could dissolve in a specific amount of solvent at the same temperature
solvent: A substance that dissolves a solute to form a solution, water is a solvent that dissolves salt.
solute: a substance that dissolves in a solvent, salt is a solute that dissolves in water
part c: Shania
4.)The particle theory states that there are spaces between all particles. This means that,in a glass of water, there are many water particles but also many empty spaces .the same is true in a cup of sugar .when you look at sugar,you can see many crystals of sugar particle .each sugar crystals contains enormous numbers of invisible sugar particles.when sugar dissolves,the sugar particles seperates and mix with the water particles.as the sugar particals seperates,the smaller water particals fit into the space between the larger suger particals the water the water and sugar particals are attracted to each other so mixxed .this is why the total valume is often slightly less then the valumes of the two separate components.
Part e: James
1.)Viscosity:The measure of how fast a fluid will flow ; the “thickness” or “thinness” of a fluid.Viscosity is a property of all fluids, including liquids and gases, whether they are pure substances or mixtures.Viscosity in gases increases and decreases in a different way than it does for liquids.
Flow Rate:The volume of fluid that passes a point in a pipe or tube in a certain amount of time.Certain variables can slow you down in a race, certain variables can also slow down the flow of fluids.
part e: Blaire
3.)Liquid- according to the particle model, as the temperature of a material increases, the attractive forces between the particles of the material decrease. As the temperature decreases, the attractive forces increase. therefore the viscosity of a liquid decreases as it is heated , and increases as it is cooled.
Gases- As gases are heated, the particles gain energy and move faster. the number of collisions between gas particles increases. cooler gases contain particles that are not colliding as much or as often. therefore, the viscosity of a gas increases as it is heated, and decreases when it is cooled.
Part D: Maham
1.) The two earth's mixture that are separated are saltwater to pure water. The two mixtures are separated by a method called distillation. Distillation is a method where it evaporates a solvent to separate it from the solute and then condensing it into a liquid. Water circulating in the condenser helps cool the steam as it passes through the tube. The saltwater gets heated and the salt starts to get collected at the bottom. The remaining water condenses and the steam condenses as it cools, after that it is turned into pure water.
Part F: Blaire
1.)The amount of mass in a certain unit of volume of a substance (Density equals mass divided by volume.)
part F: Maham
2.)Solids are the most dense then comes liquid and gases are the least dense. One exception is ice, it is less dense than liquids. Mercury is also an exception.
Part F: Blaire
3.)We can use the particle model to help explain that different substances have different-sized particles. The size of the particles determines how many particles can “fit into” a given space, each substance has its own unique density, based on how close together the particles are. As temperature increases, a substance will change from solid, to liquid, to gas. The particle model states that the particles to substance decreases.For most pure substances , the density of the solid state is greater than the density of the liquid state. The substance’s solid state and liquid state are , in turn , denser than its gaseous state. Ice , is the exception.
Part F : Blaire
4.)The formula for density is,
density equals mass divided by volume
Part G: James
1)Buoyancy is the tendency for materials to rise or float in a fluid. Buoyancy refers to the ability of a fluid to support an object floating in or on the fluid.Another name for buoyancy is floating.
Part G: Maham
2) swimming, scuba diving and boating
Part G: Blaire
3.)Average density is the total mass of an object divided by the total volume. average density is useful because it enables objects that would usually sink to float, large ships and oil rigs are a good example of average density. A ship will float with more volume and and less mass. The higher the density the lower the buoyancy
Part G: James
4) The Greek Scientist Archmedes made a brilliant discovery around 212 B.C.E Hiero II , ruler of Syracuse suspected that. The royal goldsmith had not used pure. gold to make his gold. Archimedes solved the problem while at the public baths. He stepped into the almost full bath , and water gushed all over the floor. The Solution to the problem came to Archimedes in a flash - a solid object can displace water out of a container.
5) Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Buoyancy is the power of a fluid to exert an upward force on a body placed on it. They are related in such a way that FB = ?gV where FB is the buoyancy force, ? is the density of the liquid, g is gravity, and V is the volume of water displaced by the object.
Part H: Blaire
1.)The gas must be enclosed in a sealed container with sturdy walls. gas molecules distribute themselves equally throughout their containers. there is so much space between the particles that, even after the particles are squeezed closer together, they are still far enough apart to behave as gas. an external, or outside , force is applied to the enclosed gas, to push the particles closer together. Other states of matter can’t be compressed because solids and liquids cannot be squeezed into a smaller volume, they are said to be incompressible
Part H: James
2)The gas compresses when you land on it . It absorbs the force of the fall gradually.Gases are compressible because their particles can be squeezed closer together into a smaller volume.Some examples are an air mattress , piston like devices and Styrofoam packaging.They all are used to absorb the force of impact to reduce the amount of pressure felt.
Part H: Maham
3)The air around you has weight, and it presses against everything it touches. That pressure is called atmospheric pressure, or air pressure. It is the force exerted on a surface by the air above it as gravity pulls it to Earth.Atmospheric pressure drops as altitude increases.
Part H: Shania
4.)compression is when you squeeze it In a smaller volume and the balance of forces-there are two kind of forces,unbalanced and balanced, an object at rest stays at rest and an object motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.a couple of examples is like a book on a table a book is a balanced force and a book in motion is unbalanced.
Part H: Maham
5) Hydraulics is the branch of science and technology concerned with the conveyance of liquids through pipes and channels, especially as a source of mechanical force or control. A hydraulic system is a mechanism operated by the resistance offered or the pressure transmitted when a liquid is forced through a small opening or tube. Hydraulic systems are used in fluid power actuators to perform various functions. Automobile assembly lines and other heavy duty production machines use hydraulic systems. Construction activities that use heavy-duty equipment, such as bulldozers forklifts and other earth-moving equipment also rely on hydraulic systems.
Part H: James
6.) Pneumatics is the study of pressure in gases. A Pneumatic system is a system of which a gas , such as air transmits a force exerted on the gas in an enclosed space.Pneumatic systems are similar to hydraulic systems , except gases are used instead of liquids. The operation of most pneumatic systems is based on the fact that gases can be compressed.Some examples of pneumatics are tools , large tampers used to pack down dirt, tiny precision drills, heavy trucks and buses.