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6 S's of the Civil War
Transcript of 6 S's of the Civil War
knives, molasses, rum, guns
Missouri Compromise 1820
11 slave and 11 free states
both Maine and Missouri want to come into union
Compromise said that Maine would be free state and Missouri a slave state.
Created the 36'30 degree line.
Missouri Compromise Line
Compromise of 1850
California wanted to come into union
15 slave and 15 free states
Said California would be free state
Washington D.C. would end slave trade
Texas could not annex New Mexico Territory
Fugitive Slave Law
Slavery continue in D.C.
Popular Sovereignty in New Mexico territory
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
States that states would decide for themselves on issue of slavery (popular sovereignty)
Did away w/ Missouri Compromise line
people for and against slavery rushed to Kansas territory to influence vote (Bleeding Kansas)
Kansas voted to become slave state, but Congress rejected them.
south knew they had lost power in government.
Dred Scott 1857
slave that was taken from slave state of Missouri to free state of Illinois.
sued for his freedom claiming he should have been free when taken to free state.
U.S. Supreme Court said that he was property and could be taken anywhere.
Made slavery legal in every state.
John Brown's Raid 1859
Passionate about abolishing slavery
Felt as if he was led by God
Raided Harper's Ferry VA in an attempt to gain ammunition and supplies from armory.
Took hostages and was held by troops led by Colonel Robert E. Lee.
Found guilty and hanged for his crimes.
South Carolina talked of leaving the union as a result of the Compromise
GA's platform said that the state would abide by the Compromise as long as the north did.
Newspaper, “The North Star”
William Lloyd Garrison
"The Liberator" newspaper
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Slavery in GA
By 1860 price of a good field hand was $1,800
Some slave owners freed slaves in their wills, however in 1801, GA legislature passed a law saying only they could free slaves.
Georgia prohibited free blacks to come into the state.
Back to Africa Movement: started by Paul Cuffe.
1816: American Colonization Society: William Crawford from GA supported this.
In 1820, 86 people left New York and settled the new colony on the west coast of Africa and named it Liberia.
Eventually around 1200 ex slaves went to Liberia and it became a nation in 1847.
North industry, cities. Swift rivers made it possible to power factories and natural harbors for foreign trade. People in the cities began to depend on the gov’t for things like police and fire protection.
South agricultural economy. Warm climate and fertile soil. Most lived on farms where they were very independent and provided everything they needed on the farm. Did not rely on gov’t for services.
Sectionalism: placing sectional interests above national.
By 1820 political leaders were looking at issues in terms of how they affected their particular section rather than as a nation.
Tariffs: the north wanted to place a high tax on imported goods.
North: high tariffs would protect their business in their factories as their goods would be cheaper than products from Great Britain.
South: Did not have factories to protect. High tariffs meant a lower demand on cotton cloth imported from Britain which cut back on the amount of cotton that Great Britain bought from the south.
North: Cities in the north allowed for much more social interaction between the people. People had free time to go to plays, lectures, shows.
South: People did not live very close to others and social events usually surrounded production (barn raising, quilt making, etc.) Church attendance on Sundays provided social time for many families.
Social Class tied to money
Easier to move up and down the ladder.
more interaction between the classes.
social class tied to slaves and cotton.
impossible to move up and down ladder.
Families reputation very important.
State’s rights: The south believed that the states should have the ultimate power over decisions except in issues specifically granted to the U.S. government by the Constitution.
nullification – right to determine if a law passed by Congress was constitutional or not.
In 1828 and 1832, S.C. nullified the tariffs and favored secession. GA did not follow suit because of the strong support for President Andrew Jackson who did not support nullification
Lincoln’s Election: ran as a Republican party that was started in 1854.
Republican platform: free land in the west, tariffs, and stopping the spread of slavery into the west.
There were 2 Democrats that ran. South nominated John Breckinridge and the north nominated Stephen Douglas. Because of the split, Lincoln won.
In November 1860 after Lincoln’s election GA voted to use $1 million to defend the state and raise 10,000 state troops.
Governor Joseph Brown stated:
1. Lincoln would appoint Republican Supreme Court Justices
2. In less than25 years Slavery would be eliminated from the country.
3. Believed that if the south seceded before Lincoln’s inauguration that a special convention would be called giving the south the guaranteed constitutional rights they sought.
By January of 1861, South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, and Alabama had seceded.
On January 29, 1861 Georgia officially seceded from the U.S.
Ordinance of Secession:
GA’s 1788 ratification of U.S. Constitution was repealed
GA’s membership in the union of states known as the U.S. was now dissolved.
GA was now an independent and free nation.
Reasons of Secession
Reasons listed in the Declaration of the Causes of Secession.
Lincoln’s election signaled a victory for the abolitionists
Government wanted to prohibit slavery in the territories
Give equality to the black and white races
Disregard of Constitutional guarantees
Confederate States of America
By Feb. 4, 1861, Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas became the Original 7 Confederate States.
Jefferson Davis of Mississippi - President
Alexander Stephens of Georgia – Vice President
Thomas R.R. Cobb of Georgia – drafted new Constitution.