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Southeast Native Americans
Transcript of Southeast Native Americans
The Southeast Native Americans are one of the the five main groups of Native Americans in the USA. The other groups are the Northwest Coast Native Americans, the Great Plains Native Americans, the Southwest Native Americans and the Eastern Woodlands Native Americans. Each group has an exotic way of living, different from the other groups as well as many different tribes. The mainly Known tribes of the Southeast Native are the 5 civilized Tribes(the Cherokee, the Chickasaw, the Choctaw,the Creek and the Seminole.
Types of Homes
The Southeast Native Americans lived in 4 different kinds of houses. They are Wattle & daub houses, longhouses, wigwams and chikees.
Wattle & daub houses are made by weaving rivercane and vines into a frame and then coating the frame with plaster. The roof is made with straw or was shingled with bark. Wattle and daub houses looked like small huts with big roofs.They were built for permanent residence.
Longhouses and wigwams were made similarly out of wooden frames. Then they were covered with birch bark sheets and woven mats and were roped together to keep the mats in place.But longhouses were built for permanent residence and could fit up to 100 people.Longhouses were rectangular and had arched roofs.Wigwams were small homes about 8-10 feet tall and also had arched roofs.Wigwams weren't made for permanent residence.But they weren't portable and were easy to build.
Chikee were made of thick posts supporting thatched roof and a flat wooden platform elevated many feet off the ground. They made good homes for people in hot,swampyclimate.The thick post kept the house from sinking into the hot swampy environment and the elevated wooden platform kept swamp creatures from entering the house.Walls were not necessary because it never got cold in the tropical southeast region mainly refering to the Florida area.
The beliefs and customs of the southeast Native Americans were mostly based on animism and shamanism.
Animism is a common belief of the Native Americans of North America and Canada which also includes the southeast Native Americans. Animism is based on the idea that every natural thing in the universe has a soul or spirit. This includes animals, plants, rocks and other natural organisms. In the religion of animism it is believed that natural disasters like tornadoes and land forms and waterways like mountains and rivers also have a soul or spirit. The southeast natives who believe in animism have legends that include a super natural creature called trickster, creatures or things that transformed the world to what it is today called transformers and counsels and animals that got together to discuss important decisions.
In Shamanism, the tribe's shaman or healer would act like a bridge between the humans and the spirits. The shaman would consult the spirits if there was a problem and the spirits would tell the shaman and answer.
But some tribes like Cherokee believed in the dear God and were scared that the Deer God would get angry if they hunted more than they needed. Many tribes also believed in the Great Spirit.
An important ceremony that many southeast Native American tribes shared was the green corn ceremony. This ceremony was held during the fall when corn was ready to eat. It was held to think the Gods for their good fortune and to continue their good luck. During the green corn ceremony the shaman and some of the tribe’s members would dance around sacred fire holding corn.
A custom that the Cherokee had was that warriors fasted for three days then drank snake root potion and threw up before a war because the Cherokee thought they were purifying their spirits.
A new word I learned during research was doctrine. Doctrine is a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a church, political party or other group.
The southeast region had a humid and hot climate in the summer and a mild climate in the winter. The region has many mountains, rivers and forests in the northern part and has grasses and swarms in the southern part. The region is made of many states they are Florida, Georgia, North and South Carolina, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Kentucky and Tennessee.
The southeast Native Americans would travel by foot, rafts and canoes. They would travel by rafts and canoes mainly fishing and crossing waterways like rivers and lakes. They mainly travel by foot for hunting but they would travel by foot also to go to their winter villages.
The southeast Natives used bows and arrows, spears, nets and animal traps as weapons and tools to hunt. Since southeast Native Americans used every part of animal they killed, they would make crafts and tools out of animal parts like knives out of the bone of the animals and rattles out of turtle shells. They would also make baskets, blankets, jewelry and rugs. In order to make blankets, baskets and rugs they would use a large wooden loom. They also used minerals and plant dye to add color to their crafts.
Weapons, tools and crafts
The Southeast Native American area was perfect for growing crops because of the humid climate and the fertile soil. Some the well-known crops the southeast Native Americans planted were corn, beans, squash, pumpkins and tobacco.
The southeast Native Americans would gather nuts, fruit and berries. They would also dry fruit for food.
Southeast Native Americans would hunt wild hogs, rabbits, turkeys, eagles, opossums, raccoons, squirrels and deer. They would also fish in the many waterways that covered the region.
Even though the southeast Native Americans hunted, farmed, and fished many varieties of animals and plants, their diet mainly consisted of corn bread, hominy grits, tomatoes, potatoes and sweet potatoes.