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Oceans and seas

I'm going to tell you a lot about the oceans and seas
by

femmie :-)

on 25 January 2013

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Transcript of Oceans and seas

pollution Deep-sea life Frozen poles Oceans and seas Life in the coral reef Coral reefs, found mainly in tropical seas, are built by colonial animals called corals. Each individual within a colony is a polyp, which grows a tough outer skeleton. When the polyp dies, its skeleton remains. Over time, polyps build up reefs, giving shelter to many animals. WARNING: NEVER touch a reef, as you will damage its delicate animals. Stay off the bottom, and stirred-up sediments will smother the coral. Avoid buying reef souvenirs Coral reefs, found mainly in tropical seas, are built by colonial animals called corals. Each individual within a colony is a polyp, which grows a tough outer skeleton. When the polyp dies, its skeleton remains. Over time, polyps build up reefs, giving shelter to many animals. (A polyp is an individual coral animal that looks like a miniature sea anemone) there are two types of corals-stony corals, which make reefs, and soft corals. Stony corals have a single row of tentacles. Soft corals contain spiny skeletal parts called sclerites. The icy oceans at the top and bottom of the Earth have some of the weirdest wildlife. Sea temperatures fall below freezing during months of winter darkness, followd by endless daylight in summer. Fearsome storms are possible at any time. Yet the waters are rich in nutrients, so creatures have adapted to the harsh conditions. The polar regions are home to many kinds of life. The water teems with fish, marine mammals, and more, while birds swim in the freezing waters or fly above WARNING: NEVER touch a reef, as you will damage its delicate animals. Stay of the bottom, as stirred-up sediments will smother the coral. Avoid buying reef souvenirs. 1/4 of all marine fish species live in coral reefs! Rain forest of the sea

coral reefs support more species than any other ocean habitat. They are a source of food and medicine for hundreds of millions of people, and they protect coastlines from erosion. Climate change, pollution, and overfishing are causing their rapid decline. About 20 percent of reefs are damaged beyond repair, and half of those remaining may collapse unless we act soon. this is a clown fish and sea anemone Visit the Monterey Bay Aquarium in Monterey, California; or the John G. Shedd Aquarium in Chicago, Illinois; or the Audubon Aquarium of the Americas in New Orleans, Louisiana. Books:
''The Coral Island'' by R. M. Ballantyne
''Journey Under the Sea'' by Linda Pitkin this is a camouflaged sea horse The wingless midge is the largest land animal of Antarctica! Arctic and Antarctic

Polar bears can never hunt penguins-they live at opposite ends of the world. Both poles have many kinds of whales, seals and birds. Invertebrates

Polar animals with no backbones include starfish, jellyfish, and sea anemones. In the brief summer, plankton thrive in the water. They are food for krill, witch in turn feed many larger animals. Fish

Fish living nearer the surface of the water tend to be more active than those living near the bottom. Bottom dwellers tend to be sluggish, to save their energy. Birds

These are the creatures that travel closest to the North and South poles. Many scavenge if given the chance, picking at the floating dead bodies of fish, whales, and seals. Hidey-holes

A reef's many cracks and crevices make great hiding places and feeding grounds for small fish, shrimps, and similar creatures. Sea slugs and clams cling to the coral. The tentacles ( arms) of a common octopus can be more than 3 feet ( 1m) long! this is a polar bear this is a killer whale this is a right whale this is a walrus this is a leopard seal these are beluga whales this is a harp seal Penguin power

At 4 feet (120 cm) tall and more than 77 pounds (35 kg), emperors are by far the biggest penguins. They can waddle more than 70 miles (113 km) over Antarctic ice, from the sea to their traditional breeding areas-and back again. Fish More than 16,700 different species of fish swim in the oceans, from the huge whale shark at 41.5 feet (12.7 m) long to tiny wrasses and gobies. Most have skeletons inside, breathe using gills, are covered in scales, and move using fins and tails. Jawless fish

Two kinds of fish, hagfish and lampreys, have no jaws for biting. Instead, their mouths are shaped like a sucker or slit, with small hooks or teeth to scrape flesh. Strange skeletons

Sharks, skates, rays, and chimaeras (ratfish) form a group called cartilaginous fish. Their skeletons are made not of bone but of a lighter, more flexible substance known as cartilage, or gristle. Deadly fish

The fierce-looking reef stonefish of Southeast Asia and Australia is the world's most poisonous fish. Its back spines inject a powerful venom that can kill a person in a few hours. Bony fish

Fish with skeletons made of bone are by far the biggest group. Some are sleek, silvery hunters. Others are brightly colored coral reef dwellers, or they may be flattened and camouflaged to lie unseen on the seabed herring '' bait-ball'' Atlantic cod porcupine fish leafy sea dragoon flying fish peacock flounder sunfish pacific sailfish boxfish orange-spot goby ornate wrasse moray eel Animals that live in the cold, dark, abyssal depths of the sea are some of the strangest on the planet. It's not by accident that they look weird-they have had to develop special features to survive in a very unfriendly habitat. Harsh conditions include inky darkness, very high pressure, freezing temperatures, and the occasional jet of boiling water. Invertebrates

There are all kinds of invertebrates (animals without backbones) in the deep, from crustaceans to starfish, from worms to octopuses, squid, and jellyfish. Giant isopod

Scientist are not sure why some animals living at great depths grow bigger than their shallow-water cousins. This woodlouse-type crustacean can grow to 16 inches (40 cm) in length. Dumbo octopus

This octopus has giant earlike fins on top of his head, which make it look like the flying elephant in the classic Disney film. Giant tube worm

The giant tube worm does not depend on sunlight as its source of energy. Instead, it feeds on tiny bacteria that live inside its body Fish

Tricks used by deep-sea fish to survive at great depths include making their own light-bioluminescence-to attract prey and mates and to camouflage themselves against predators. Unlike fish living in shallower waters, deep-sea fish don't have swim bladders, as they would collapse under the pressure Not so long ago, people dumped sewage and trash into the sea and forgot about them. But today there are too many people-and too much long-lasting refuse-to keep using the oceans as a global garbage can. Currents and tides

Floating items can travel thousands of miles with currents and tides. Instead of spreading them out, currents may bring them together as dirty ''rafts'' of stinking garbage that wash up on beaches and shores. Where's it from?

Up to 80 percent of ocean pollution comes from the land-city sewage and trash, farming pesticides and fertilizers, and waste from the food and chemical industries. The rest is mainly plastics, fishing nets, oil platform debris, and general ship and boat waste. Farming

Fertilizers are washed along streams and rivers to the sea. They encourage plankton to grow too fast, and they form toxic tides. Cruise ships

A 3,000-passenger cruise ship produce more than 1 ton of solid waste each day Plastics

Bags, bottles, nets, ropes, and floats take years to decompose (break down). Some animals think they are food, eat them and die. WARNING: Don't try to rescue pollution-affected or shore-stranded animals like birds and seals. Instead, tell the local police or coast guard. Practice safe and clean boating: Do not dispose of trash or toilet waste in the ocean, and use environmentally friendly cleaning agents and boat paint. Oil spills

Oil leaks and blowouts on land are difficult to control. At sea, the source of the leak may be on the dark, deep seabed and even more difficult to ''cap''. Strong water currents continually carry away the thick goo, causing terrible damage far and wide. Oil spill disasters, by tons of oil spilled

Middle East Gulf conflict, 1991 250,000,000
Lakeview oil field, California,1910 1,200,000
Deepwater Horizon, Gulf of Mexico,2010 713,922
Ixtoc 1 drill rig, Gulf of Mexico, 1979 470,000
Atlantic Empress tanker, Trinidad, 1979 285,000
Fergana Vailey oil field, Uzbekistan,1992 280,000
Nowruz platform, Persian Gulf, 1983 260,000 An oily end

Animals, plants, shoreline rocks, and beaches are all affected by an oil spill. Whales and dolphins suffer clogged blowholes and cannot breathe. Birds try to clean their clogged feathers, swallow the oil, and suffer a slow, painful death. this is a bird covered in oil this is an oil leak this is marine pollution Threatened species Right now, in all the world's oceans, creatures are at risk of become extinct (dying out forever). Many people are unaware of the huge problems, partly because sea animals and the dangers they face are hidden beneath the waves. Threats vary greatly, from pollution and global warming to being caught accidentally in fishing nets or on purpose for our dinner tables. Threats from humans

Beluga whale Pollution, boat disturbance, hunting in some areas
Blue whale Boat strikers, illegal hunting
Humpback whale Boat strikers, illegal hunting
Killer whale Loss of food, pollution, oil spills, boat disturbance
Spotted seal Melting sea ice, hunting for skins
Leatherback turtle Disturbed nests, pollution, eating floating garbage
Loggerhead turtle Tangling in fishing gear
Bocaccio rockfish Bycatch, changing ocean currents
Sockeye salmon Diseases from salmon farms
Black abalone Overfishing, diseases due to global warming
Elkhorn coral Diseases made worse by warming water
Staghorn coral As above; also water clouded with sediments How threatened?

For each species, experts need information: How many are there? How widely are they spread? How fast do they breed? They also need to know the dangers they face, such as loss of food for habitats. Until the 1980s, ambergris, a secretion in sperm whales, was used in scents. Whales died so people could smell good! Vulnerable

In this group are animals that are not in immediate danger-but they could be in coming years. We need to take early action to protect them and their habitats. manatee polar bear galapagos marine iguana Endangered

These animals are already in serious trouble. Without our urgent help, their numbers will continue to fall until they no longer exist. galapagos fur seal blue whale green turtle Critically endangered

Creatures in this most serious category are staring extinction in the face. Without drastic action now, they will not make it. They could be gone in 30 years or even sooner. western gray whale caribbean electric ray leatherback turtle smalltooth sawfish southern bluefin tuna Support beaches where marine conservation is a priority. ''Adopt'' a marine animal through a good program. Join an underwater cleanup group. If you go boating, watch out for marine life. Don't buy seafood, such as tuna and shrimp, unless it is fished in a responsible way. these little animals are cleaner shrimp. They are giving the big fish a big clean-over whales seals birds Whiskery walrus

This enormous Arctic seal cousin weighs almost 2 tons. It feels on the dark seabed with its 500-plus whiskers for shellfish, crabs, and shrimps. I want to dive in Australia once in my life Iiieeeuuuwwwwkkk, its very UGLY!!!!! BEAUTYFULL!!!! CUTE!!! uuuhhhh, creapy TERRIBLE!!!! Hairy angler

With a glowing lure dangling above its mouth, this anglerfish attracts prey. Then it sucks its victim in with its extra-large mouth. The hairs on its body can sense objects nearby. Snipe eel

This eel has about 750 vertebrae (backbones) in its long body-more than any other animal on Earth. It is so slender that it is 75 times as long as it is wide! Fangtooth

The huge teeth of the fangtooth are no good for chewing or crushing. Instead, they grip on to prey and swallow it whole! Two fangs on the lower jaw are so huge that the fish needs sockets in its upper jaw to contain them. Hagfish

A true monster of the deep, the hagfish attaches itself to a passing fish, bores inside it, and then eats it from the inside out! common octopus Birds

These are the creatures that travel closest to the North and South Poles. Many scavenge if given the chance, picking at the floating dead bodies of fish, whales, and seals.
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