Transcript of Libya as an Italian Colony
Libya as an Italian Colony The colonization of Libya has left prominently negative effects However, it has also left Libya with traces of positive effects The main reason Italy had wanted to colonize Libya was to restore the Roman Empire Minor resources such as iron ore and uncultivated lands were also reasons for colonization. Benito Mussolini He was the primary leader in Italy that led the Italians to Libya -Dictatorship -Unsafe conditions for citizens -Archaeological finds -New farm lands Ruled Italy from 1922-1943 Leptis Magna, a prominent city of the Roman Empire, was rediscovered and viewed as a symbol of the Italian right to colonize the region The colonization of Libya began in 1911 when the Italians attacked Tripoli; the capital of Libya. Tripoli borders Libya and is the closest Libyan state to Italy This made the coast cities the easiest target to attack and start the process of colonization Tripoli was largely under Italian control by 1914 as the Italians signed the Treaty of Lausanne in 1912 in which the Istanbul powers ceded Libya to the Italians. From 1919 to 1929 the Italian government maintained the two traditional provinces, Tripoli and Cyrenaica with separate colonial administrations In 1929 the two provinces were united as one province. The image below shows the two provinces before they were brought together as one. By 1934, Libya was fully controlled by Italy and the new governor Italo Balbo started a policy of integration between the Libyans and Italians that proved to be quite successful. His policy was further colonization of Libya, giving Italians there land confiscated from indigenous inhabitants. During this process, Muslims were allowed to join the Fanteria Libya (Libyan Infantry) who fought alongside the Italians in the battle against the British. For propaganda purposes Mussolini had himself declared the protector of Islam in Libya and awarded himself a sword. Although Italian leaders made many attempts to win over the original Libyans, the people never accepted the rule of the Italians In March of 1937, Mussolini opened a military highway (now the Libya Coastal Highway) the entire length of the colony. This is a video that was created shortly after the events of the Italian takeover had ended. It clearly shows that the narrator shares a voice that was against the actions of the Italians. It is mostly an informative video but it can be clearly heard through the narrators voice and diction that the group who made the video is very much against the Italian way of running Libya. Between 1911 and 1932 Libyans in Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica tried to fight off the Italian colonialism. However, the Italians with higher military power finally moderated Tripolitania in 1923. However, several religious groups continued to fight the Italian colonialism under the ruler Omar Mukhtar; a modern Libyan folk hero. With Mukhtar as a leader, the people of southern Cyrenaica successfully fought off the Italians until the day he was captured and executed. This allowed for Italy to make Libya a colony in 1939. The map below depicts the land that was ceded by the Ottoman Empire and also whatever land was gained during the era of colonialism in Libya. During World War II Libya was one of the major battlegrounds for the forces of Germany and Italy fighting Allied forces. As history documents, when the Italians and Germans lost to the British, the French and British then took over Libya However, after the war Libya was the first country to gain independence through the United Nations. The kingdom of Libya was created in December 1951. Libya also became a founding member of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). The Italians coming to Libya brought new workers and well educated people who aided in the development of the colony. The Italians that came included farmers, archaeologists and many others that brought the Libyan land to life. A significant loss of culture occurred when Mussolini decided he wanted to assimilate the Libyans and Italians into one. The negative consequences include a loss of culture, a loss of identity and having to go through the Italian superpowers and having to endure the brutality that came with colonization. Above is an image of the takeover of Libya under the Ottoman rule (1911). It is quite easily seen that the point of view of this artist was that the takeover was very calm and peaceful. The Italians may have peacefully signed the agreement with Istanbul that gave it control of parts of Libya but among arriving in the country some citizens of Libya were so infuriated that they fought against the power. Whichever way the colonization was interpreted, positive or negative; the negative impacts live on in Libya to this day. A dictatorship was formed in 1951 with King Idris, Libya’s only monarch of the time. However, on September 1 1969, a small group of military officers led by 27-year-old army officer Muammar Gaddafi staged a coup d'état (a disposition of government) against King Idris, launching the Libyan Revolution. Gaddafi was referred to as the "Brother Leader and Guide of the Revolution" in government statements and the official Libyan press. In 2011, after forty two years of rule, the Libyan people held protests in order to get Gaddafi to leave his title and position in the government. These protest led to the deaths of many Libyan citizens who were fighting for a democratic government. Libyans continue to flee the country due to the everyday dangers that citizens face such as armed militia groups After these protests Libya became a General National Congress but the country remained unsafe. During the colonization of Libya, the Italians proved to come with some positive goals for the country but instead were the cause of many negative effects. In post-colonial Libya, a dictatorship was formed and in 2011 a revolution occurred which made Libya much more dangerous and unsafe than ever before due to several armed militia groups. In conclusion, colonization has turned Libya into a place of danger and destruction. Bibliography Civic Development." History of Libya as an Italian Colony. MediaWiki, n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Libya_as_Italian_colony#Civic_development>.Full transcript
Galaty, Michael L., and Charles Watkinson. Archaeology under Dictatorship. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 2004. Www.springer.com. Web. 16 Apr. 2013. <http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F0-387-36214-2_4>.
Majdnia, Yasmin S. "Libya as an Italian Colony." Www.softschools.com. N.p., 16 Apr. 2013. Web. 16 Apr. 2013. <<a href="http://www.softschools.com/teacher_resources/timeline_maker/">Timeline Maker</a>>.
Stewart, Gaiither. "Libyan Payback." Www.countercurrents.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. <http://www.countercurrents.org/stewart270211.htm>.
Www.cbc.ca. Radio Canada, 20 Oct. 2011. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2011/10/20/moammar-gadhafi-obituary.html>.
Www.Libya-watanona.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2013. <http://www.libya-watanona.com/libya/resist.htm>.