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Bystander Effect Presentation
Transcript of Bystander Effect Presentation
- The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present (Myers, 2005, p. 575)
- Hesitancy to help strangers in an emergency, believing that ‘someone else’ will do something or that we are not suitability qualified to offer the right kind of help (Brown, 2000, pp. 44) Darley and Latane's multi stage model 1970 Research Darley & Latané’s seizure study 1968
[cf. Myers, 2005, p. 574]
Finding:- Amount of people present in an emergency inverses chance of each person offering help.
Conclusion:- Bystander effect happens due to diffusion of responsibility. Pluralistic ignorance - Looking to others for cues about how to behave, while they are looking at you; collectively misinterpretation (Baumeister & Bushman, 2008, pp. 270)
- Latané and Darley's smoke-filled room experiment 1968 [cf. Myers, 2007] Contributing Factors - They think, “It’s none of my business.”
- They fear getting hurt or becoming another victim.
- They feel powerless to stop the incident.
- They don’t want to draw attention to themselves.
- They fear retribution.
- They don’t know what to do.
: http://www.eyesonbullying.org/bystander.html BYSTANDER EFFECT by Ji Hung , Shazza and E syn . Diffusion of responsibility People assumed that since others were present, someone else would probably do something. (Darley & Latané 1968) Audience Inhibition People don’t want to feel like a fool in front of others if they offer help and gets rejected by the victim (Baumeister & Bushman, 2008, pp.281) Why don’t more bystanders intervene? Why do people fall into bystander effect? PRIMING - Defined as “the incidental activation of knowledge structures, such as trait concepts and stereotypes” [Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., & Burrows, L. (1996)]
- Research shown cognitive accessibility of knowledge structures affects social perception and behaviour
- E.g., Carver, Ganellen, Froming, & Chambers, 1983
- Activating knowledge structure triggers semantic knowledge associated with it.
- Alters social perception, hence influencing behaviour.
-Priming unaccountability causes feeling of diminished responsibility more cognitively accessible.
- When emergency situation occurs, people look for internal cues to decide whether they should assist
- If unaccountability has just been primed, chances of helping is low.
- Simply priming about being in a group may trigger this feeling.
- Thus, their internal cues suggest helping is not necessary. Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) - Shy people face FNE from audience (Asendorpf, 1987; Clark & Arkowitz, 1975; Jackson et al., 1997)
- They think that they lack social skills and perform poorly in social situations.
- Guyton (1997) investigated children's behavioural habits and concluded that shy children had lower helping scores as compared to non-shy children.
- Hesitation of bystanders high in FNE interfere with their helping behaviour.
- They are consumed with attentional bias.- Hartman (1983) states that while in this condition, people with FNE are unable to concentrate on others. - Hence, they fail to pay sufficient attention to current situation, not realising there is need for help.
- Karylowski (1979) mentions that self-awareness does not necessarily improve consistency between internalized prosocial concepts and behaviors. Real Life Cases and Examples - Kitty Genovese
- Hugo Alfredo Tale a.k.a Yax
- Wang Yue
- Bystander effect on children The Case of Kitty Genovese On March 13, 1964 Genovese, 28 years old, was on her way back to her Queens, New York, apartment from work. At 3am when she was stabbed to death by a serial rapist and murderer. According to newspaper accounts, the attack lasted for at least a half an hour during which time Genovese screamed and pleaded for help. The murderer attacked Genovese and stabbed her, then fled the scene after attracting the attention of a neighbor. The killer then returned ten minutes later and finished the assault with rape and more stabbing. Genovese's death claimed that 38 witnesses watched the stabbings and failed to intervene or even contact the police until after the attacker fled and Genovese had died. Hugo Alfredo Tale a.k.a Yax In April 2010 Hugo Alfredo Tale-Yax was stabbed to death in New York City after coming to the aid of a woman who was being attacked by a robber. Yax was on the sidewalk for more than an hour before firefighters arrived. Almost twenty-five people walked by while he lay dying on a sidewalk in Queens, several stared at Yax; one of them took pictures, however none of them helped or called emergency services. Bystander Effect in China -A short clip of a toddler. Bystander Effect on Children - There are hurtful bystander where some inciting someone to bully another in order for the bully to begin.
- Other than that, some bystanders encourages the bullying to further continue by laughing, cheering or making comments about the bully.
- There are also other bystanders that joins in the bullying once it has begun. - Most bystanders just accept bullying by watching and doing nothing about it. Often without realizing it, these bystanders also contribute to the problem for that person who's being bullied. However, passive bystanders provide the audience a bully craves and the silent acceptance that allows bullies to continue their hurtful behavior. Conclusion -The bystander effect was proposed to explain the reluctant behaviour of people in an emergency situation, especially with the presence of others.
-This presentation has covered the definition of bystander effects and a few factors contributing to this phenomenon, not forgetting the serious consequences that the bystander effect may lead to.
-Possible initiatives such as educational programs and role modeling can be used as intervention methods so that the bystander effect can be perpetuated.
-However, further research are required to discover more effective interventions to reduce the bystander effect. REFERENCE LIST Baumeister, R. F. & Bushman, B. J. (2008).Social Psychology and human nature(Brief version) Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
Darley, J. M. & Latané, B. (1968)."Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility".Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 8, Issue 4, p377–383. Retrieved 6th April, 2013 from EBSCOhost databse.
DeLamater, J.D. & Myers, D.J. (2011). Social psychology (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Latané, B. & Darley, J.M. (1969). “Bystander ‘apathy’”. American Scientist, Vol. 57, No.2, p244-268. Retrieved 11th April, 2013 from Google Scholar database.
Manning, R., Levine, M. & Collins, A. (2007). “The Kitty Genovese Murder and the Social Psyhcology of helping: The Parable of the 38 Witnesses”. American Psychologist, Vol.62, No.6, p555-562. Retrived 11th April, 2013 from Google Scholar database. Myers, D. G. (2005). Social Psychology (8th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Myers, D. G. (2007). Exploring social psychology (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Smith, Eliot R. & Mackie, Diane M. (2007). Social psychology (3rd ed.). New York, United States of America: Psychology Press.
Eyesonbullying.org (2008). Eyes on Bullying. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.eyesonbullying.org/bystander.html [Accessed: 7th April 2013].
wiseGEEK (2012). What is the Bystander Effect? (with picture). [online] Retrieved from: http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-the-bystander-effect.htm [Accessed: 7th April 2013].
YouTube (2011). 2 YEAR OLD GIRL RAN OVER IN CHINA - Baby ignored by 18 Chinese left to die in street! Yue Yue. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 7th April 2013]. - Baumeister & Bushman,
2008, pp.278 Research Dining out study -Participants are categorised into 3 groups without them knowing.
-Group 1: primed with the questionnaire “imagine you won a dinner for yourself and 10 of your friends at your favorite restaurant”.
-Group 2: primed with the questionnaire “imagine you won a dinner for yourself and a friend at your favorite restaurant”.
-Group 3: not primed.
-An experiment is carried out in another room to investigate participants’ helping behaviour individually.
-Participants of Group 1 offered the least assistance.
-The difference in helping behaviour between Group 2 and 3 is not significant.
-Conclusion: the presence of others is not necessary for diffusion of responsibility to occur.