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Chains by Laurie Halse Anderson

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Lily Jensen

on 2 January 2014

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Transcript of Chains by Laurie Halse Anderson

How colonists treated slaves
The role of New York City in the American Revolution
Punishments
During the American Revolution
THANK YOU!!!
"Chains" by: Laurie Halse Anderson
New York City Fire

By:
Conditions in British Prisons
At first slaves became indentured servants (usually they only worked for 4 years and then they were finished).

Servants were usually artisans, factory hands, or just servants.
(men would work with tobacco or mine coal.)
They were to be "bought or sold, hired out to others, left to descendants in a will, or seized to satisfy an owners dept."
Slaves were used more in the South then North Colonies.
Farmers, Plantation owners, ect. in the south, needed lots of slaves to help out.
Women are sent out to find a husband. (Usually from their neighbors slaves.)
When they find their man, they make babies. (10-16 babies)
When the Babies are born, they are born into slavery automatically.
And when the children are old enough, they start working for their owners.
More slave helpers
They thought the slave children needed to have time to play to become strong and healthy workers for them
Work in the south started at 4:00A.M. or they had to start no later that 4:30. They ended at DUSK.
Jobs for a slave
South
Thought's and Idea's
Colonist taught Bible stories to the slaves sometimes
If a slave was put on trial and were guilty, the punishment was usually the death penalty.
The slaves couldn't carry a gun, have liquor, or own property.
Treated differently then white slaves
They were DISCRIMINATED against.
The process of slavery
African's taken from their homes in Africa.
stripped. (like starting anew).
Branded.
Put on ships to the 13 Colonies.
Usually on the bottom of the ships with the animals.
In the book "Chains," Isabel was thinking about how her parents told her stories about how Africans were taken from where they lived and how the ghost would try to stop them from taking the Africans away but, couldn't because they couldn't travel over water.
When she was traveling to New York to her new masters, she and her sister were supposed to be with the animals at the bottom of the boat.

From the book, "Chains"
When Isabel first started to work for Mr. and Mrs. Lockton, she...
Dusting/sweeping/mopping
Cooking/food preparation
Fetching water
Emptying the chamber pots
cleaning and airing out sheets
bringing food to her masters, and sometimes company
getting firewood for the fires
NO ONE would refer to an African American as "Mr." or "Mrs."
They would usually refer to their owners as...
Missus
Madam
Master
Sir
Sometimes by their name
Works Cited
Resource #1:
Reef, Catherine. "slavery, childhood and." Childhood in
America, Eyewitness History. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2002. American History Online, Facts On File, Inc.
Resource #2:
Resource #3:
Fryer, Darcy R. "slave codes." In Smith, Billy G., and Gary B. Nash, eds.
Encyclopedia of American History: Colonization and Settlement, 1608 to 1760, Revised Edition (Volume II). New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2010. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc.
McNeese, Tim. "'Discrimination in Early America'." Regents of
the University of California v. Bakke, Great Supreme Court Decisions. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 2007. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc.
Prison Conditions in the Book
Chains
Isabel's friend Curzon was a wounded prisoner of war.

When Isabel visited Curzon to bring scraps of food, conditions were horrible and Curzon was, multiple times, on the verge of death.
The Law that Started it All
On March 25, 1782 Parliament passed a law allowing prisoners to be detained, released or exchanged.
Arrival of New Prisoners
Prisoner Food
Men received two meager rations a week.

Rations contained one half pound of biscuit, rice, and pork, one half pint of peas, and one half ounce of butter.

Most of the food was rotten and crawling with maggots.
Death of Prisoners
Every three days, prisoners were allowed a fire to cook their food. On other days, they were forced to eat the meat raw.
The Cold
Disease
Prison Ships
Treatment continually worsened as American Prisoners are taken further from the battle front.

Prison guards located in New York and Philadelphia were especially brutal.
When taken to the prisons, American Captives were...
Stripped of their clothes
Given worn out garments
Marched through the streets taking insults from Loyalist
There was a fire in New York. It was important to the book because it had changed characters.

The fire changed Lady Seymour's life because she lost her house and many of her belongings.
It had changed Isabel's also because she was supposed to stay with Lady Seymour and help her.

Another thing that affected Isabel that happened during the fire was that Isabel had lost everything that was her sister's.
New York City is the main setting of the book.
Work Cited
"Cruel and Unusual"
As a person in the colonial time period committing a crime would result in a cruel punishment.

Whether it was a
branding
,
public humiliation
, or
the

death penalty
.

These three method were used frequently.

As a result of the criminal's actions they would get the punishment based on the crime.
Isabel was originally from Rhode Island, she was sold to a family in New York City.
Branding...
A person or a slave that committed a crime would be sat down and had a letter burned on their bare flesh.
The letter would represent the crime they had done.
For instance theft, murder, treason, and etc. A branding was almost like a tattoo, but it was in front of a lot of people and it wasn't for pleasure.
The Lockton's have a large estate in New York. Isabel is a slave for them there. The Lockton's also have also have an estate in Charleston.
Public Humiliation...
The fire started early morning on September 21st, 1776
The Fire started on Whitehall slip on the east river
Burnt down the whole West side of New York
Because humans can do stupid things they were brought to a pillory that would lock themselves up, so the whole town could see them.

For example, the children would throw tomatoes at them and people would scream rude remarks.
New York Fire
Most of the area that was burnt down was not rebuilt
The pillory was used for less severe crimes. In particular, the criminal caught stealing. Therefore, this method was used a lot because many colonial people were poor.
The Death Penalty...
Destroyed over 500 buildings
Leila
Grace
Brooke
Lily
Maura
Branding and public humiliation were punishments used for less severe crimes then the death penalty.

Murders or being accused of treason would result in the death penalty.

Therefore, if you committed those crimes you would die. In fact, it started being used in the 1600s.
Over 200 suspects for causing the fire
200 people were arrested
George Washington had asked the second continental congress if he could burn the city to prevent it serving as winter quarters to the British.
Congress had denied his request
As sad as it is to talk about death there are many ways to achieve it for those criminals who commit a horrible crime.

For example, burning, drowning, stoning, and hanging. (There are more, but they are too gross to share.)
Through the years slaves were to work for as long as they lived.
"In the

book
Chains
"
Isabel talked back to Madam Lockton, her master, and she had to have a trial for her punishment. After, the trial her punishment was a branding. The letter I was imprinted on her face for insolence.
In the book
Chains
Works Cited Page
Resource #1
"Eight Amendment(1791).
Eight Amendment

(1791). N.p.,n.d. Web. 12 December 2013.
Resource #2
Sifakis, Carl. "
Crime and Punishment Colonial America."
The Encyclopedia of American
Crime
, Second Edition. New York Facts on File, Inc., 2001
American History Online
. Facts on File, Inc. 13 December 2013.
Resource #3
Roensch, Greg. "A Brief History of the Death Penalty."
Furman v.
Georgia
, Great Supreme Court Decisions. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 2007
American History

Online
. Facts on File, Inc., 13 December 2013.
Many met their death by...
freezing
starving
disease
wounds
Every day, multiple corpses were dragged out of prisons.

The dead were put into wagons to be taken to large holes where they were buried together.
Work Cited
Hi Maura!
Hello Lily this is ridiculous!!!
IKR! Teehehehe!
i love you all!!!
Hi Brooke!
Brooke Loves Everyone!
No pictures Maura!
Where is everyone?
In the winter, snow covered the prisoners, killing many.

Prisoners who had coats and other types clothing to keep them warm were forced to give them up in exchange for food.

Cells
Many prisoners were forced into tight cells.

Prisoners were forced to sleep on bare ground, for there was no straw or hay to lay on.

Dead men, left where they lay, gave off a horrid stench.

There was no bathroom, so the prisoners had to answer the call of nature in the same space they slept.
Prisoners were able to keep their clothes, but they were given no more.

Captives were given no medical attention

The rations that Prisoners received were cut by British Commissaries and replaced with rotten meat.

Captives on prison ships were deprived of fruits and veggies, so scurvy disease was common.
Works Cited
Because it was rare for prisons to be cleaned, sickness raged among captives.
In Summer, common diseases were...
yellow fever
small pox
dysentery
Rats, possibly infected with disease, roamed prison cells.
Exchange
Many soldiers held captive by the British and who were exchanged and sent back home did not survive the journey or died soon after arrival.

Other sick soldiers infected their families after they were returned home.
In New York, crowds protested the Stamp Act repeatedly in the fall of 1765.
The "Battle of Golden Hill" on January 19,1770, started because the New York citizens and the British soldiers had too many violent confrontations.
Anti-impressionist riots took place in New York in July 1764 and 1765.
In 1775 and 1776 New York had many food riots.
An angry crowd of New Yorkers tarred and feathered a shoemaker because he spoke ill of the city's committee on August 22, 1775.
The battle between tenant farmers and the Hudson Valley's manor lords had reached a climax in 1766 and British troops were stationed there to stop it.
When the Revolutionary War broke out, New York was badly divided. This was because there were both loyalists and patriots who both occupied the city.
New York was filled with many loyalists.
In August 1776, General George Washington lost the Battles of Lux Island and Harlem Heights. He then evacuated New York City, and in October the same year was defeated at White Plains.
The British held New York City during the entire war.
New York during the 1760s
Riots, Problems, and Battles in New York
New York City during the war
Burg, David F. "Prelude to Revolt: 1756–1774."
American History Online. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2013. <http://www.fofweb.com/NuHistory/default.asp?ItemID=WE52>.
"Protest and Rebellion in the 18th Century."
Facts
on File History Online
. N.P., n.d. web. 15 Dec. 2013. <https://www.fofweb.com//NuHistory/default.asp?ItemID=WE52>.
This is a map of the middle colonies.
New York is a middle colony.
This is a painting of New York City
Resource #1
Resource #2
Resource #1
"Infobase Learning - Login." Infobase Learning
- Login. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2013.
Resource #2
"Ablaze." N.p., 21 Sept. 2012. Web. 13 Dec. 2013.
<http://patriciahysell.wordpress.com/2012/09/21/ablaze/>.
Full transcript