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Martial Law And The Fourth Republic

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Rannie Raymundo

on 15 October 2013

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Transcript of Martial Law And The Fourth Republic

The FOURTH REPUBLIC
After the end of more than eight years of Marial Law, The goverment of the Philippine Republic change drastically from the intended parliamentary democracy to a 1981 gave birth to what President Marcos Called as the "New Society" or historically speaking,
Martial Law And The Fourth Republic
On top of the economic recession, other problems plagued the nation. such as [1] The prevalence of dirty politics, [2] The rampage of graft and corruption in the goverment. [3] the widening gap between the ric and the poor. [4]the impotency of the 1935 Philippine Constitution to cop up with the new socio-economic problems of the time, and [5] the rising tides of crimes, communisim and subversion.
STUDENT POWER AND DEMONSTRATIONS
Roused to action by the deplorable condition of the country, the students of colleges and universities went on warpath. They rose in violent demonstrations in the streets of Manila and in towns of provinces. The Bloodiest of these students demonstrations was what is refferred as "The First Quarter Storm" which occurred on the night of January 30,1970.

THE CALL FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION
In July 1946, there emerge a presistent movement to change the Constitution of 1935. The Constitution of 1935 was obsolete for it was no longer in harmony with the condition of the times.
RE-EMERGENCE OF COMMUNIST MOVEMENT
The early 1960's saw the continuos emerge of mass movement organizations in the philippines. these groups included membership from various sector representing labor, The peasantry and the student youth. The Radical Nationalism of parttido komunista ng pilipinas (PKP) becan imfluential to many of these organizations
THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION
On Nov 10, 1970. from a total of 2481 candidates with 73women who enter the electoral race, the 320 delegates to the COnsitutional Convention were elected. The Constitutional Convention met in inaugural session on june 1, 1971 at the manila hotel it was formally opened by senate president Gil J. Puyat.
it was a relic of colonialism,being drafted during the American Regime and was an imitation of the US Constituion
too much powers given to the president may spawn a dictator,
imbalance among the legislative, executive and judicial branches
lack if provision on presidential election protests
its parity Amendment was a memento of American imperialism
the Commission on election was no granted adequate powers to prevent election anomalie.
the GAO (General Auditing Office) was virtually a watch dog without teeth,
it had no provision on local autonomy.
"Plaza Miranda Massacre"
After the historical visit of Pope Paul VI The Condition of The Philippines worsened. The soaring wave of lawlessness reached its peak in the so-called "Plaza Miranda Massacre" on the evening of Aug 21, 1971, During the proclamation rally of the Liberal Party Candidates for the local election.

2 grenades
8 person killed
120 injured
THE PROCLAMATION OF MARTIAL LAW
At the height of the series of bomings and growing subversive activities, Marcos stated, ",,,there is throughout the land a state of anarchy and lawlessness, chaos and disorder, turmoil and destruction of a magnitude equivalent to an actual war between the forces of our duly constituted goverment and the New People's Army... and that public order and safety, and security of the nation demand that immediate, swift decisive and effective action be taken.."
The Proclamation 1081 which declared Martial Law had been signed by Marcos even earlier, on Sept 21,1972. it seemed typical of the deceitful way in which the country was to be ruled for the nex fourteen years under President Marcos that he prepared and signed the martial law edict in secret,and told the public about it only after ther military had started arresting the opposition and silence the media.
The other general orders of Marcos immediately after proclamation were; the imposition of curfew in the entire Philippines from 12 midnigh to 4 am; the unless authorized of all rallies and demonstrations; and the prohibition of carrying firearms unless authorized. In some of the letters of instruction to his secretaries, the contents were; 1. to take over and control newspapers,magazines,radio and television facilities and all media of communocations 2. to take over the management,contor operation of MERALCO, PLDT, The National Waterworks and Sewerage Authority (Nawasa), the Philippine National Railways(PNR), the philippine Airlines and other airline firms, and other public utilities;
On June 16, 1981 , right after the lifting of martial law, the first presidential election in twelve years was held. As expected, President Marcos ran and won a massive victory over the other "almost unknown" candidates

On June 30, 1981, President Marcos Was inaugurated in drandiose ceremonies and proclaimaed the "Birth of a new Republic"
THE FIRST PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino was born in conception Tarlac to a prosperous family of hacienderos. His Father, Benigno Aquino, Sr. was a prominent official in Quezon's Commonwealth and during the World War II.
Ninoy Aquino
On Aug 21, 1983 Former Sanator Benigno "Ninoy" S. Aquino Jr. Returned to the Philippines. It would have been convenient for the Marcos Goverment if Aquino had stayed out of politics,
THE AQUINO ASSASINATION
"The Filipino is worth dying for." He wished to express to Marcos to step down and seek a peacefull regime change and return the country to democracy.

The AQUINO ASSASSINATION
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