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The Englemann Experiment

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Joshua Wolfe

on 10 December 2013

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Transcript of The Englemann Experiment

The Starting Experiment
The Second Experiment
The Second Experiment
The Final Experiment
The Engelmann Experiment
Theodor Wilhelm Engelmann
After decades of testing T. W. Engelmann was able to successfully prove that there are varying colors of light that are used in Photosynthesis that will produce different amounts of Oxygen. Showing that the color being absorbed is specific to one Chloroplast and different light colors will bind to different forms of Chloroplasts.
After much debate, Engelmann's Experiment was proven valid even though his main light source was the sun, which does not emit all visible light colors.
After testing the prism and its effects, Engelmann added Bacteria B, which seeks Oxygen, and noted where Oxygen was produced the greatest. Engelmann was able to note that Green light was unable to be absorbed and produce little to no oxygen, but Red and Blues were able to produce high amounts of Oxygen during photosynthesis.
Engelmann's Second Experiment is considered to be his most important and ground-breaking. Taking a modified microscope designed and built by Carl Zeiss, this microscope had a prism that would magnify the light and produce beams of light that would show the color of light as well as its wavelength and frequency.
The Englemann Experiment
Engelmann hypothesized that the Chloroplasts were all active, but the amount of Oxygen they produced varied greatly between the different light spectrums that were absorbed and used.
Engelmann's Experiment showed that Visible light was not able to show all colors, however, after testing it was shown that Purple Bacteria use Ultraviolet light in the same fashion that the other colors are used. Thus producing the color purple.
T.W Engelmann was a German Biologist, who studied at many prestigious German Institutes until he received his Doctoral Degree in medicine from Leipzig in 1867.
Engelmann has contributed much to the medical field from Human anatomy to microorganisms. His first major contribution created a theory as to how the muscle contracts, this theory became very prevalent with the discovery of anisotropic and isotropic bands within the striated muscle.
As well Englemann discovered that the Heart is constricted not by nervous system control, but stimulus from the Heart itself by dissecting a frog and observing the contractions.
The Engelmann Experiment
The Engelmann Experiment was actually a sucession of three experiments involving Photosynthesis.
Each involved the same type of plant and its chloroplasts, but tested the usage of Photosynthesis in varying ways.
The first experiment really was merely just an observations of the bacteria moving to different regions of the Chloroplast from the alga
Spirogrya
.
His original hypothesis was that these bacteria move to different regions on the Chloroplasts that produce varying amounts of Oxygen from Photosynthesis. This was the first observation of an Aerobic bacteria that needed oxygen to survive.
This modified microscope allowed Engelmann to test the ability of the Chloroplast to absorb and use different colors of light through the prism. Using the Cladophora Chloroplast, Engelmann projected light from the prism so that it would magnify a certain color and would see what amount of light was absorbed and what was refracted.
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