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denise henderson

on 30 April 2015

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Transcript of HAPTICS (TOUCH)

*the study of touching:also know as zero-proxemics*

Key Terms
Zero Proxemics
Tactile Development
Comparative Studies
Human Studies
Functions of Touch
Influencing Factor
Substitutions of Touch
Functional Approach of Touch
Tactile Development & Humans
*Infants are given feelings of vibration, touch, and rhythem evem before birth
*14 month to 2 year babies receive more touch then infents under 14 months
*Female children recieve more tactile development
*Human Tactile Cycle (revolves and evolves)
- Baby "Hold me tight"
- Child "Put me down"
- Adolescent "Leave me alone"
-Young lover "Hold me tight"
*Touch needs that are met result in 4 major values

Types & Functions of Touch Cont.
Five Categories of Touching behavior:

Functional/Professional Level
: this includes touch from a nurse, hairstyles, or cashier.
: in the US is represented by a handshake (varies in cultures)
: most difficult to interpret; can be communicated with attraction, includes a friendly hug or placing your arm around someone.
: represents touches indicative of intimacy and REQUIRES appropriate interpersonal context. Includes caressing someone on there face or hair.
: The most intimate form of touch, includes intercourse , touching someones "special" body parts. Form of touching were sexes differ the most.
Types & Functions of Touch
Argyle (1975) reported 16 most common types of touch:

-Patting -Pinching -Embracing -Licking
-Linking -Stroking -Guiding -Slapping
-Punching -Grooming -Shaking -Kissing
-Holding -Kicking

we will come back to these concepts at the end of the presentation
Weitz (1974)
Weitz says "the logical end of proxemics (study of space) is touching,Once two people touch they have eliminated the space between them, and this act usually signifies that a special type of relationship exsits between them"
Adler, &Towne (1975)
Besides being the earliest means we have of making contact with others,touching is essential to our healthy development.PG 36

Montagu (1971)
Found that non brestfed children has
-four times the repiratory infection
-twenty times more diarrhea
-eight times eczema
- as well as more hay fever, ashma, etc

Bowly (1961)
Being deprived of touch has also been associated with
-learning problems
- speech prroblems
- symbolic recognition difficulty
- lack of trust & confidence
A child's first orientaion towards the world is through tactile touch
Factors influencing Touch
Comfort Level
Area Of Body Touch
1.top of the head & face
3.top of the back
4.chest &arm
6.genital ares
7.thigh & butt
Comfort Touch
*Stolte and Fridman explained in general touch is to be positive during labor.Woman age 20 to 34 years of age viewed touch more positively then woman 14-19 years old.
*Whites perceived touch more positively then non whites
*Touch is also seen as comforting behavior Dolin & Booth researched how students might comfort each other by means of nonverbal communication. Most replied with pats, hugs, ect.
* Doctors and nurses see the importance in "Healing Touch" used in treacments today such as autism, HIV, cancer ect.
Same and Opposite Sex Touch
Gender Issues
Johnson &Johnson (1993)
found that females anticipate more negative feelings about opp. sex touch then males(this is true whether the touch is gentle or forceful). Both male and female consider same sex touch neg. w/ related feelings of violation and harm.
Sanfilipo (1993)
found that females reported the "wish to be held" more often w/corresponding positive feelings about touch from males
Whats your comfort level with the opposite sex???
Gender Issues
touching of:

-First date
-First Interaction
-First interaction w/same sex
Frequency Of Contact
A significant aspect f touch is how often people touch.
Jourard (1966,1968)Conducted a study on how frequent body contact occure between couples in varies cafes in different cities.
San Juan, Puerto Rico:180
Paris, France: 110
Gainesville, Florida: 2
London, England: 0

In other studies the frequency of contact can also depend on which part of the country you are in. In NORTHERN England they tend to be more excepting to touch then in SOUTHERN England

Violation of Haptic Expectation
Little is know of what happens when we violate expectations. What is known suggest that THREE variables are important .

-bump on the bus
-hand shake
-two persons arguing
Substitute for "REAL TOUCH"
Functional Approach to Touch
In examining touch we find that in regard to the functions of identification and self- presentations-some people are more "touchy feely" then others.

Display of instructional information can be made using touch , especially when parents gently slap the hand of the child to prevent them from touching an object of from t taking a particular action.

Display of liking is found that we are more likely to touch others, as well as to accept touch from others whom we like
*men fear same sex touch over woman
*men will avoid affectionate touch to avoid the appearance of being feminine
*woman are more flexible to same sex touch
* men are more open to opposite sex touch
*woman are more hesitant to opp. sex touch
*Cultures dictate both same and opp. sex touch
people are drawn towards persons and things they like, evaluate highly, and prefer, and move away from things they do not prefer
C. E Thomas. Richmond, and NcCroskey
suggest that immediacy has been associated with "responsiveness"
Full transcript