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The History of Computers-Timeline

By: Komal K & Shivani S

Shivani S

on 26 November 2012

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Transcript of The History of Computers-Timeline

The History of
Computers The Abacus 3000 BC 80 AD The Antikythera Device The Slide Rule 1622 The Calculating Clock 1623 The Pascaline 1642 The Stepped Reckoner The Difference Engine 1822 The Typewriter 1829 The Analytical Engine 1834 Magnetic Recording 1899 The Differential Analyzer 1930 The Z1 1938 The ABC Computer 1939 The Colossus 1943 The Transistor 1947 The EDVAC 1952 The First Hard Drive 1956 The First Commercial Copy Machine 1959 The First Video Game 1962 The Mouse 1963 The First Floppy Disk 1967 The First ATM 1970 The CRAY-1 1976 1981 The CD-ROM 1981 By: Shivani S. & Komal K.
8F Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician and philosopher. Pascal did considerable research with regard to the pressure of liquids. He explained principle that described how a liquid in a vessel carried pressure equally in all directions. This came to be known as Pascal's Law, and had importance in the field of hydraulics. Pascal's interest in calculating may have come from a desire to assist his father with the numerous calculations required in his job as Superintendent of Taxes. In about 1642, Pascal developed a calculator called the "Arithmatique" or "Pascaline."

Pascal's device used a series of toothed wheels, which were turned by hand and which could handle numbers up to 999,999.999. Pascal's device was also called the "numerical wheel calculator" and was one of the world's first mechanical adding machines. The Chinese abacus was developed about 5000 years ago. It was built out of wood and beads. It could be held and carried around easily. The abacus was so successful that its use spread form China to many other countries. The abacus does not actually do the computing, as today's calculators do. It helps people keep track of numbers as they do the computing. Invention: abacus

Function: noun / ab·a·cus

Definition: A counting device: a mechanical device for making calculations consisting of a frame mounted with rods along which beads or balls are moved

Inventor: Chinese in c3000 BC The Osborne 1 The Antikythera Device is an ancient machine that was found in a shipwreck. It was a scientific breakthrough because it was well ahead of its time with a system of gears inside of it. Also, it was a historical breakthrough for the ancient world because it is more than 2,000 years old. In 1951, Derek J. de Solla Price, a British physicist and historian, began to reconstruct this device. He determined that it was constructed in Greece sometime around 80-82 B.C. It is an ancient mechanical analog computer, designed to calculate astronomical positions. A mechanical device consisting of a sliding portion and a fixed case, each marked with logarithmic axes. By lining up the ticks, it is possible to do multiplication on it. More complicated slide rules also allow the extraction of roots and computation of trigonometric functions. William Oughtread invented the first slide rule and it was an indispensable tool for scientists and engineers throughout the 1960's, when it became more popular. But the development of the desk calculator (and the pocket calculator) rendered slide rules largely obsolete beginning in the early 1970s. Willhelm Schickard built the first Calculating Clock. The device could add and subtract six-digit numbers (with a bell for seven-digit overflows) through six interlocking gears, each of which turned one-tenth of a rotation for each full rotation of the gear to its right. Thus, 10 rotations of any gear would produce a “carry” of one digit on the following gear and change the corresponding display. The device could also multiply and divide and it rang a bell to announce overflow. It was the size of a typewriter. 1674 It was 1672 when the famous German polymath, mathematician and philosopher, Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz (1646-1716), co-inventor of the differential calculus, decided to build a machine able to perform the four basic arithmetical operations. He was inspired by a steps-counting device (pedometer) he saw while on a diplomatic mission in Paris.

The Stepped Reckoner, as Leibniz called his machine, used a special type of gear named Stepped Drum or Leibniz Wheel which was a cylinder with nine bar-shaped teeth of incrementing length parallel to the cylinder’s axis. When the drum is rotated by using a crank, a regular ten-tooth wheel, fixed over a sliding axis, is rotated zero to nine positions depending on its relative position to the drum. This allows the user to slide the mobile axis so that when the drum is rotated it generates in the regular wheels a movement proportional to their relative position. This movement is then translated by the device into multiplication or division depending on which direction the stepped drum is rotated. Patented in France by Thomas de Colmar in 1820, the Arithmometer or Arithmomètre was the first commercially successful mechanical calculator. Its sturdy design gave it a strong reputation of reliability and accuracy. Its production debut of 1851 launched the mechanical calculator industry which ultimately built millions of machines well into the 1970s. For almost thirty years, from 1851 to 1878, the Arithmometer was the only mechanical calculator in commercial production and it was sold all over the world. The Arithmometer 1820 The Difference Engine is a calculating machine which could do mathematical computations in an automatic way. It was designed by Charles Babbage circa 1812 but never completed. An early prototype of the Difference Engine was built by 1822, and Babbage, with the help of the British government, started work on the full machine in 1823. It was intended to be steam-powered and fully automatic, unlike other mechanical calculating machines that required manual operation. Described as "an automatic, mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions," it is considered one of the earliest "programmable" machines. It was powered by simply cranking a handle. The evolution of the typewriter is part of the ongoing history of the human need to communicate. Gradually a machine emerged that revolutionized the work of the writer. In 1867, Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden and Samuel Soule invented the first practical mechanical typewriter machine.

Invention: typewriter
Function:noun / type·writ·er
Definition: A mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing in characters similar to those produced by printer's type by means of keyboard-operated types striking a ribbon to transfer ink or carbon impressions onto the paper. With the construction project stalled, and freed from the nuts and bolts of detailed construction, Babbage conceived, in 1834, a more ambitious machine, later called Analytical Engine, a general-purpose programmable computing engine.The Analytical Engine has many essential features found in the modern digital computer. It was programmable using punched cards, an idea borrowed from the Jacquard loom used for weaving complex patterns in textiles. The Engine had a 'Store' where numbers and intermediate results could be held, and a separate 'Mill' where the arithmetic processing was performed. It was also capable of functions for which we have modern names: conditional branching, looping (iteration), microprogramming, parallel processing, iteration, latching, polling, and pulse-shaping. It had a variety of outputs including hardcopy printout, punched cards, graph plotting and the automatic production of stereotypes - trays of soft material into which results were impressed that could be used as molds for making printing plates. Magnetic recording originated in 1899 with the invention by Valdemar Poulsen of the Telegraphone. During the period between the two World Wars, development work was carried out which resulted in improved systems, notable among which were the Blattnerphone and the Marconi-Stille. These systems employed a steel tape as the recording medium, a material which was bulky and difficult to handle. Mechanical and magnetic requirements were often mutually exclusive. The jointing of sections was also difficult. A later patent (in 1935) introduced oxide of iron as the magnetic medium. This oxide, though not ideal in its magnetic properties, was a considerable improvement on the steel tapes previously available. During the Second World War, considerable development work was carried out in Germany, resulting in a system of recording sound magnetically which ranked with the best on disc or film. 1884 The Felt's Comptometer was the first calculator constructed that allowed operands to be entered by pressing keys rather than requiring the operator of previous calculators to turn a series of dials to input the operand values. (Operands are number values; the Comptometer accepted operands of up to ten digits.) Upon its introduction, the machine was called "the epitome of convenience" because a user simply "tapped" in the numbers on a typewriter-like keyboard, and the machine made the necessary calculations with the use of springs that drove the mechanism. The 1886 invention by machine designer Dorr Eugene Felt (1862-1930) of Chicago, Illinois was accomplished due to an earlier Felt invention, a "carry" mechanism that allowed keys to quickly return to their rest-state after being pressed. The first rough draft of the Comptometer was finished near the end of 1884, and consisted mostly of rubber bands, meat skewers, and a macaroni box. The first working version, made from metal, was finished in around 1886, and limited production began in 1887. Over the next several years Felt continued his partnership with Robert Tarrant to manufacture and refine the Comptometer. Later, Felt added a built-in printer for the Comptometer that automatically recorded the inputs and outputs. The Comptometer In 1930, an engineer named Vannevar Bush at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) developed the first modern analog computer. The Differential Analyzer, as he called it, was an analog calculator that could be used to solve certain classes of differential equations... Utilizing a complicated arrangement of gears and cams driven by steel shafts, the Differential Analyzer could obtain practical (albeit approximate) solutions to problems which up to that point had been prohibitively difficult. The Differential Analyzer was a great success; it and various copies located at other laboratories were soon employed in solving diverse engineering and physics problems. The differential analyzer became a crucial step in the development of the modern computer. In 1938, Zuse made a mechanical calculator called the Z1, the first binary computer. Zuse used it to explore several groundbreaking technologies in calculator development: floating-point arithmetic, high-capacity memory and modules or relays operating on the yes/no principle. Zuse's ideas, not fully implemented in the Z1, succeeded more with each Z prototype.
In 1939, Zuse completed the Z2, the first fully functioning electro-mechanical computer. Konrad Zuse completed the Z3 in 1941, with recycled materials donated by fellow university staff and students. This was the world's first electronic, fully programmable digital computer based on a binary floating-point number and switching system. Zuse used old movie film to store his programs and data for the Z3, instead of using paper tape or punched cards. Paper was in short supply in Germany during the war.
In 1941, the Z3 contained almost all of the features of a modern computer as defined by John von Neumann and his colleagues in 1946. The only exception was the ability to store the program in the memory together with the data. Konrad Zuse did not implement this feature in the Z3, because his 64-word memory was too small to support this mode of operation. Due to the fact that he wanted to calculate thousands of instructions in a meaningful order, he only used the memory to store values or numbers. The block structure of the Z3 is very similar to a modern computer. The Z3 consisted of separate units, such as a punch tape reader, control unit, floating-point arithmetic unit, and input/output devices. The Atanasoff computer was approximately the size of a large desk. It had approximately 270 vacuum tubes. Two hundred and ten tubes controlled the arithmetic unit, 30 tubes controlled the card reader and card punch, and the remaining tubes helped maintain charges in the condensers. The Atanasoff computer employed rotating drum memory. Each of the two drum memory units could hold about thirty fifty-bit numbers. The computer operator's console contained a series of buttons, meters, lights and controls, mounted on top of the computer's metal frame. The Atanasoff machine was used to solve linear equations. The British Colossus was the first ever programmable digital computer. This top secret computer came into service at the end of 1943 and was used to break German telex traffic, encrypted with the Lorenz SZ40/42 machines. Although Colossus operated two years earlier than the publicly well known American ENIAC, it never received the proper credit due to its top secret status during and after the war. It was only in the late 1970's that information about this wonderful machine became available. Unfortunately, this magnificent machine is hardly mentioned in history books.
The codebreakers soon realized that they needed a machine to process the large number of Tunny messages. Early 1943 the mathematician Max Newman designed the "Heath Robinson", an electro-mechanical machine that was used to break the Lorenz traffic. The prototype became operational in June 1943 but had several technical problems. Meanwhile, a team lead by the brilliant engineer Tommy Flowers, assisted by Max Newman, was busy with a top secret project in the Post Office Research Station in Dollis Hill near London. His goal was to develop and build a digital and programmable advanced version of the Heath Robinson.
By the end of 1943 the Colossus Mark I was ready and all parts were moved to Bletchley Park and assembled during the Christmas holidays by Don Horwood and Harry Fensom. Mid January 1944 the Colossus was ready and began its task to break the top secret German communications. In June 1944 the Colossus Mark II, an improved version followed. The Mark II was 5 times faster and easier to program than the Mark I. The existing Colossus Mark I was revised, more Mark II's were built and by the end of the war 10 Colossus computers were operational. The first transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories on December 16, 1947 by William Shockley (seated at Brattain's laboratory bench), John Bardeen (left) and Walter Brattain (right). This was perhaps the most important electronics event of the 20th century, as it later made possible the integrated circuit and microprocessor that are the basis of modern electronics. Prior to the transistor the only alternative to its current regulation and switching functions was the vacuum tube, which could only be miniaturized to a certain extent, and wasted a lot of energy in the form of heat. Although video was possible with vacuum tube equipment, as was the case with the Ampex VRX-1000, without the transistor video products would never have gotten very small. EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was to be a vast improvement upon ENIAC. Mauchly and Eckert started working on it two years before ENIAC even went into operation. Their idea was to have the program for the computer stored inside the computer. This would be possible because EDVAC was going to have more internal memory than any other computing device to date. Memory was to be provided through the use of mercury delay lines. The idea being that given a tube of mercury, an electronic pulse could be bounced back and forth to be retrieved at will--another two state device for storing 0s and 1s. This on/off switchability for the memory was required because EDVAC was to use binary rather than decimal numbers, thus simplifying the construction of the arithmetic units. The commercial usage of hard disk drives began in 1956 with the shipment of an IBM 305 RAMAC system including IBM Model 350 disk storage. Let's just say that they were extremely heavy, and nothing like what they look like today! Xerox's first commercially successful copy machine was introduced in 1959, and came with a feature you won't find on many modern pieces of office equipment: a fire extinguisher to put it out, when it -frequently- caught on fire. The Xerox 914 was ground breaking at the time it was introduced, because it could make 136 copies per hour. This is one of Xerox's most successful products even today. At the time of its release it was a wonder of modern office wizardry! It was prone to overheating and would not shut down, instead it would catch on fire. "Spacewar!" is one of the earliest known digital computer games. It is a two-player game, with each player taking control of a spaceship and attempting to destroy the other. A star in the centre of the screen pulls on both ships and requires maneuvering to avoid falling into it. In an emergency, a player can enter hyperspace to return at a random location on the screen, but only at the risk of exploding if it is used too often.

Steve "Slug" Russell, Martin "Shag" Graetz, and Wayne Wiitanen made the game in 1961, with the intent of putting it on a DEC PDP-1 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Each time you click your mouse, you're paying homage to a UC Berkeley College of Engineering alumnus. Douglas Carl Engelbart, who received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering in 1955, not only invented the mouse but also helped define the way in which we interact with personal computers to this day- from multiple windows to hypertext links. Doug Engelbart invented the mouse in 1963 in his research lab at SRI International (then Stanford Research Institute), for which the patent was issued in 1970.

The basic idea first came to him while sitting in a conference session on computer graphics in 1961, his mind mulling over the challenge of coming up with efficient pointing devices for interactive display technology. One idea he had was to use small wheels traversing the tabletop, one turning horizontally, one turning vertically, each transmitting their rotation coordinates for analysis. He sketched it out roughly. Later on, when he and his research team were getting interactive display technology up and running in his lab at SRI, looking at different pointing devices to move the cursor on the screen, he reviewed his earlier notes with his lead engineer Bill English, who built the first working prototype encased in a carved out wooden block with perpendicular wheels mounted in the underbelly. This first mouse had only one button simply because that was all there was room for in the wooden casing. The "floppy" was invented by IBM engineers led by Alan Shugart. The first disks were designed for loading microcodes into the controller of the Merlin (IBM 3330) disk pack file (a 100 MB storage device). So, in effect, the first floppies were used to fill another type of data storage device. Overnight, additional uses for the floppy were discovered, making it the hot new program and file storage medium. A floppy is a circle of magnetic material similar to other kinds of recording tape such as cassette tape; one or two sides of the disk are used for recording. The disk drive grabs the floppy by its center and spins it like a record inside its housing. The read/write head, much like the head on a tape deck, contacts the surface through an opening in the plastic shell, or envelope. The first Shugart floppy held 100 KBs of data. 1975 Altair 8800 The End Thanks for Watching! Six weeks after landing men on the moon, Americans take another giant leap for mankind with the nation's first automated teller machine (ATM). The machine, called the Docuteller, was installed in the wall of the Chemical Bank in Rockville Centre, New York. It marked the first time reusable, magnetically coded cards were used to withdraw cash. A bank advertisement annoucing the event said " On September 2, our bank will open at 9:00 and never close again!"

Previous automated bank machines had allowed customers to make deposits, pay bills or obtain automated cash -after purcahsing a one-time or card from a teller. The new device was the first in the United States to dispense cash using a mag-stripe card that didn't require a teller's help. Although, the ATM could only dispense cash, not receive deposits or transfer money from one account to another. Those features came with the 1971 version, called the Total Teller. The Altair 8800 from Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems (MITS) of Albuquerque, NM, is considered by many to be the first "personal computer" - a computer that is easily affordable and obtainable. At this point in time, there were no computer or electronic stores to buy your own computer. The only options were to build your own system from plans and designs published or sold in magazines and other sources. It was the individual owner's responsibility to find and acquire all the parts necessary to assemble it.
The Altair 8800, was first featured in the January and February 1975 editions of Popular Electronics magazine, although this early design bore little resemblance to the finalized version released just a few months later. Up until this point, MITS was known for selling calculators and model rocket components (telemetry). For just $439, the Altair 8800 for the first time included everything in one kit - assembly instructions, metal case, power supply, and all of the boards and components required to build "the most powerful computer ever presented as a construction project in any electronics magazine". It took many days and nights of careful soldering and assembly to hopefully create a working Altair. The USB The Cray-1 supercomputer prototype was built by Cray Research, Inc. The Cray-1 contained 200,000 integrated circuits and could perform 100 million floating point operations per second (100 MFLOPS). In 1972, he founded Cray Research and his first computer, the Cray-1 delivered in 1976, became an icon of the supercomputer age. Many other supercomputers followed and the company became known for selling the fastest commercially available computer at any given time. Released in 1981 by the Osborne Computer Corporation, the Osborne 1 is considered to be the first true portable computer - it closes-up for protection, and has a carrying handle. It even has an optional battery pack, so it doesn't have to plugged into the 110VAC outlet for power.

While quite revolutionary, the Osborne does have its limitations. For example, the screen is only 5" (diagonal) in size, and can't display more than 52 characters per line of text. To compensate, you can actually scroll the screen display back and forth with the cursor keys to show lines of text up to 128 characters wide. The Osborne was designed with transportation in mind - it had to be rugged and able to survive being moved about. That's one reason that the screen is so small - a larger and heavier screen would be more susceptable to damage. The two pockets beneath the floppy drives work great for floppy disk storage, although the Osborne modem also fits perfectly in the the left pocket and plugs into the front-mounted "modem" port. Designed as a true portable computer system - it can be considered airline carry-on luggage, and it will fit under the passenger seat of any commercial airliner. The Compact Disc was invented by Sony and Philips in 1981 in order to serve as a high-quality compact audio storage device which allowed for direct access to digital sound tracks. It was officially launched in October 1982. In 1984, the Compact Disc's specifications were extended (with the publication of the Yellow Book) so that it could store digital data. A CD (Compact Disc) is an optical disc 12cm in diameter and 1.2mm thick (its thickness may vary from 1.1 to 1.5 mm) for storing digital information: up to 650 MB of computer data (equivalent to 300,000 typed pages) or 74 minutes of audio data. A circular hole 15mm in diameter is used to centre it on the CD player's surface. A USB flash drive is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface. USB flash drives are typically removable and rewritable, and physically much smaller than a floppy disk. 1998-2000 2000's 2000: Microsoft Windows 2000 was released on February 17, 2000

2000: The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act becomes effective on April 21, 2000.

2001: Microsoft releases Internet Explorer 6.0 in August 27, 2001.

2003: The Safari Internet browser is released June 30, 2003.

2005: YouTube is founded and comes online February 15, 2005.

2009: Microsoft Internet Explorer 8 is introduced March 19, 2009.

2009: Microsoft launches the Bing search engine June 3, 2009.

2012: Microsoft Windows 8 and Microsoft Surface is released October 26, 2012.

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