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CGHS Biology - Water Chemistry
Transcript of CGHS Biology - Water Chemistry
What makes water so special?
Water is special because....
It has 3 states of matter
Water is also special because...
Surface Tension = Adhesion + Cohesion
The Amazing Properties
KEY VOCABULARY TO KNOW!!!!
Water = H2O
Water is a polar molecule
Polar means there is uneven distribution
Hydrogens are slightly positive
Oxygens are slightly negative
This molecule is held together by covalent bonds
Oxygen of one water molecule is attracted to the Hydrogen of another water molecule
Acts like a magnet
Because of this, water sticks to itself and to surfaces
This also allows water have a high specific heat. It takes a lot of energy to break these H-bonds
Solid (ice and snow) all the molecules are arranged in criss-cross rows and they can’t move.
At 0 degrees Celsius, water (ice) is less dense than liquid water, therefore it floats.
Liquid – the molecules can move around, but they are still close together.
Gas – the molecules are hundreds of times farther apart and move much faster
The molecules at the top of the water are being pulled inward by the polar forces creating a “stretchy skin” known as surface tension.
Near Universal Solvent
Suspensions: type of mixture where (solute) material does not mix. ( sand in water, oil in water)
Mixture: two or more compounds physically but not chemically put together
Solutions: type of mixture when parts are evenly distributed when dissolved in water (e.g. Salt in water and sugar in water, Kool-Aid)
Two parts solutes (solid), solvent (what its dissolved in)
Water is considered the universal solvent.
Two Types: solutions and suspensions
Surface Tension: Surface of the liquid contracts due to the strong hydrogen bonds.
Can be an acid or a base based on amount of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH) present once dissolved in water
Acid=a solution that has a lot of H+
Base= a solution that has a little bit of H+
Acids are between 1-6 on the scale
1 - highly acidic
6 - slightly acidic
Bases are between 8-14 on the scale
8 - slightly basic
14 - highly basic
pH scales measure the percent of hydrogen present
Chemical Properties of Solutions
Adhesive: sticks to surface
Cohesive: sticks to itself
Polar: has both positive and negative charges
Capillary Action: can move against gravity