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Childhood Influences On Self-Image
Transcript of Childhood Influences On Self-Image
No matter what way you look at it, Barbie's body is not average...and also not easily attainable. studies have linked Barbie to causing eating disorders in young girls, and girls ages 5 to 7 who have seen photos of Barbie have been shown to have less self-esteem and a greater desire to be skinny than girls who did not look at the pictures.
But the reality is that people with a body like Barbie’s would not have a back strong enough to stand properly, and have only enough room for have a liver and a few inches of colon in their bodies! On top of that, they would, naturally, die of malnutrition. Mattel Inc. received many criticisms about Barbie and the impact she has on young girls around the world. In the summer of 2000, they decided to change Barbie to a more modern look.
“The new Barbie will have a more natural body shape less busty with wider hips.” What caused Mattel to make these changes? One influence may have been a drop in sales. According to the Los Angles Business Journal, Barbie sales dropped from $2 billion to $1.5 billion in 1999. Barbie and Ken There is one woman, Cindy Jackson, who was so influenced by Barbie that it became her life mission to look exactly like her. Her obsession to look like Barbie started when her parents bought her first Barbie at the age of 6. And she didn't give up until she reached her goal. She ended up spending about $55,000 and underwent 20 plastic surgery operations to reach her goal of becoming Barbie. A 1965 Barbie Body Image Message I couldn't believe this when I read it....In 1965 Mattel came out with a “Slumber Party Barbie” that came complete with a bathroom scale permanently set at 110 pounds. The doll also came with a book entitled How to Lose Weight. And inside this book it gave the advice: “Don’t Eat”. The matching Ken doll also came with slumber party accessories, but his were milk and cookies, sending a very different message Child Beauty Pageants Definition: A small-scale anatomically improbable molded plastic figure of a human being used especially as a child's plaything. Collectable doll. For nearly fifty years children have been subjected to the world of beauty pageants where they have been forced to behave as young adults rather than the five year olds that they actually are. Young children spend numerous hours every day practicing speeches and model walks for upcoming pageants rather than focusing on schoolwork and playing with friends. With an emphasis placed on appearance in beauty contests, children become devastatingly concerned with the way that they look before many of them can walk. One would believe that a life of glamorous hair and make-up, beautiful gowns, and sparkling tiaras would be every young girls dream, unfortunately, for many, this dream often turns into a nightmare. Beauty pageants have continued to grow in popularity ever since they were first created in the 1920's, however, they involve a much deeper level of commitment and work than many people are aware of. With nearly 250,000 children taking part in the various 3,000 beauty pageants created each year the competition is fierce and children are forced to spend a significant amount of time every day preparing for the contests Disney The average North American girl will watch 5,000 hours of television, including 80,000 ads, before she starts kindergarten. In the United States, Saturday morning cartoons alone come with 33 commercials per hour. Commercials aimed at kids spend 55 per cent of their time showing boys building, fixing toys, or fighting. They show girls, on the other hand, spending 77 per cent of their time laughing, talking, or observing others. And while boys in commercials are shown out of the house 85 per cent of the time, more than half of the commercials featuring girls place them in the home. So far as quality is concerned, the media still conform to a stereotyped image of women. Götz’s study identifies a number of sexual stereotypes found around the world : in general, girls and women are motivated by love and romance, appear less independent than boys, and are stereotyped according to their hair colour: blonds fall into two categories, the “girl next door” or the “blonde brat,” brunettes are always the intelligent ones, and redheads are always tomboys. They are nearly always conventionally attractive, thinner than average women in real life, and heavily sexualized. in 2008 by Doctor Maya Götz of the International Central Institute for Youth and Educational Television. This study measured the representation of male and female characters in nearly twenty thousand children’s programs in 24 different countries. By age four, children want to be thin.
By age eight, while both girls and boys are struggling with body image, girls experience the issue much more keenly.
By age 12, many girls won’t risk exposing their bodies to ridicule.
By age 15, many girls react to constant teasing and harassment about their bodies by resorting to extreme weight loss and binge eating.
Girls who internalize negative thoughts about their bodies may withdraw from physical activities and other learning experiences. A positive body image builds self-esteem and creates well-adjusted children who are enthusiastic about life’s opportunities. In 2004, ETFO released the results of a major research study on body image. The study was conducted for ETFO by Dr. June Larkin, Program Director, Equity Studies Centre, Institute for Women’s Studies and Gender Studies, , and Dr. Carla Rice, Clinical Program Specialist, Body Image Project, Regional Women’s Health Centre, Sunnybook and Women’s A new study suggests many young girls begin to worry about how they look before they begin school.
However, viewing movies and television starring beautiful people including a stereotypically thin and beautiful princess was not found to increase children’s anxieties. Nearly half of the 3- to 6-year-old girls
in a study by University of Central Florida psychology
professor Stacey Tantleff-Dunn and doctoral
student Sharon Hayes said they worry about being fat.
About one-third would change a physical attribute, such
as their weight or hair color. That’s why it’s important for parents to use movies such as “The Princess and the Frog” to start conversations with their children about weight, skin color and their perceptions of beauty, she said.
They can explain that princesses’ tiny waists are not realistic for girls and that children don’t need Cinderella’s golden hair or Snow White’s porcelain skin to look good. Criticism and teasing from parents, siblings and peers also shape how young girls perceive their bodies, and as their children’s most important role models, parents also should avoid criticizing their own bodies. During a study, each of 121 girls was taken into a room with a “playmate” a trained research associate in her 20s who had experience working with children. After chatting for several minutes, the playmate asked each girl how she feels about the way she looks.
Thirty-one percent indicated they almost always worry about being fat, while another 18 percent said they sometimes worry about it. Half of the girls watched parts of animated children’s movies such as Cinderella that featured young, beautiful characters and appearance-focused comments, such as Gaston telling Belle in Beauty and the Beast that she is “the most beautiful girl in town, and that makes her the best.”
The second group watched parts of animated children’s movies such as Dora the Explorer and Clifford the Big Red Dog that do not contain any appearance-related messages.
In a room that featured a dress-up rack of costumes, a vanity, dinosaurs and more, children then spent about the same amount of time on appearance-related play activities, such as brushing their hair at the vanity, regardless of which set of movies they watched.
While older girls and women tend to compare their bodies to the models’, younger children may be more likely to adopt the persona of the princesses while playing, the UCF researchers said. This video was created for a psychology class project. The main point of this video is not to bash Disney, but merely to highlight the stereotypical gender-roles, the construction of femininity/masculinity, and the portrayal of dominant/single women in its animated feature films. It is obvious that Disney did not invent these stereotypes, but rather reinforces them in society. Media plays a huge role in socializing individuals. That is, conveying to males and females certain beliefs, values, and customs to live by. Disney was the main focus of this project because this socializing process starts at a very young age. Disney is at the pinnacle of the children’s media industry. No other company has the influence or impact that this multinational conglomerate has. self-image definition
one's conception of oneself and one's own identity, abilities, worth, etc. Boys are given the impression that men naturally have muscles bulging all over their bodies. Take a look at their plastic action-figures (like GI Joe Extreme) in toy stores. If GI Joe Extreme were life-size, he would have a 55-inch chest and a 27-inch bicep. In other words, his bicep would be almost as big as his waist and bigger than most competitive body builders’. These body ideals are reinforced every day on TV shows, movies, magazine covers, and even video games. Boys see a body ideal that for most men is impossible to achieve without illegal anabolic steroids. There is a physiological limit to how much muscle a man can attain naturally, given his height, frame, and body fat percentage. Unfortunately, however, the action figure heroes on toy store shelves and male fitness models on magazine covers and ads suggest otherwise. http://www.snac.ucla.edu/pages/Body_Image/Body_Image.htm GI Joe is to boys what Barbie is to girls (Pope, Olivardia, Gruber, & Borowiecki, 1999). Over the past 20 years, these G.I. Joe toys have grown more muscular and currently have sharper muscle definition. The GI Joe Extreme action figure, if extrapolated to a height of 5’10”, would have larger biceps than any bodybuilder in history.
A Playgirl centerfold model of 1976 would need to shed 12 lbs of fat and gain 27 lbs of muscle to be a centerfold of today (Leit, Pope, & Gray, 2001). http://www.msoe.edu/life_at_msoe/current_student_resources/student_resources/counseling_services/newsletters_for_mental_health/body_image_dissatisfaction.shtml Players of video games featuring exceptionally muscular men and very thin women characters -- just the type of gift found today under Christmas trees -- are absorbing more than a quick buzz from the action. Research at Kansas State University indicates a mere 15 minutes of viewing extreme body types in video games can negatively affect players' view of their own body image.
"It was kind of sobering that it did have such a short-term effect," said Richard Harris, professor of psychology at Kansas State. Harris and graduate student Christopher Barlett organized two study groups of university students. The men played "WWF Wrestlemania 2000," a professional wrestling game that included enormous muscular specimens such as The Rock, Big Boss Man and The Undertaker. The second study group was made up of women who played a beach volleyball game. Participants in the research were surveyed about their body image before playing the sports games and questioned after interacting with the games for 15 minutes. Both male and female subjects viewed their own bodies more negatively after completing a cycle at the game control, Harris said. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4179/is_20081225/ai_n31159017/ Action Figures Boys and Video Games Happy birthday Barbie! This is what you would look like now
without all the plastic surgery and years of eating disorders. Family life can sometimes influence self-esteem. Some parents spend more time
criticizing their kids and the way they look than praising them, which can reduce
kids' ability to develop good self-esteem. People also may experience negative comments and hurtful teasing about the way they look
from classmates and peers. Sometimes racial and ethnic prejudice is the source of such
comments. Although these often come from ignorance, sometimes they can affect someone's
body image and self-esteem. http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/problems/body_image.html# Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder can be difficult, especially if you aren't a willing and active participant in your care. But effective treatment is often successful.
The two main treatments for body dysmorphic disorder are:
Often, treatment involves a combination of psychotherapy and medications. Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of chronic mental illness in which you can't stop thinking about a flaw with your appearance a flaw either that is minor or that you imagine. But to you, your appearance seems so shameful and distressing that you don't want to be seen by anyone. Body dysmorphic disorder has sometimes been called "imagined ugliness." When you have body dysmorphic disorder, you intensely obsess over your appearance and body image, often for many hours a day. You may seek out numerous cosmetic procedures to try to "fix" your perceived flaws but never are satisfied. Body dysmorphic disorder is also known as dysmorphophobia, or the fear of having a deformity. Because body dysmorphic disorder is thought be caused in part by problems related to the brain chemical serotonin, the medications prescribed most commonly are those that affect serotonin, including:
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Tricyclic antidepressants http://www.teen-beauty-tips.com/barbie-body-image.html http://www.barbiefest.com/blog/20090613/using-barbie-positive-body-image http://womensissues.about.com/b/2009/03/09/after-50-years-what-is-barbies-impact-on-girls-and-women.htm http://www.family.samhsa.gov/be/gnb_image.aspx http://www.womenshealth.gov/bodyimage/kids/ http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/women_and_girls/women_girls.cfm http://www.etfo.ca/issuesineducation/bodyimage/pages/default.aspx http://psychcentral.com/news/2009/11/30/body-image-concerns-in-pre-school-youth/9782.html On one episode, a little girl won...and she burst out into tears. But these tears weren't tears of joy. Little Bella cried because she was relieved she won back the money the family spent for the pageant. Poor little Bella, who is five years old, was worried about the money. When a Kindergarten age child feels the weight of the family finances on her shoulders because of a beauty pageant, it's not fun anymore. http://thestir.cafemom.com/entertainment/2944/Toddlers_and_Tiaras_Flippers_and Body Dysmorphic Disorder Contestants spend about two hours or less in actual competition and no
longer than 90 seconds on stage for talent or 45 seconds for modeling routines. Cost
Besides travel and lodging expenses, pageants require an entry fee that usually ranges from fifty to several hundred dollars, depending on the type of competition being entered. Spray tans and other accessories also must be paid for, as well as clothing and outfits. Dresses can cost anywhere from $200 to $6000, depending on the designer and the amount of adornment on the garment. Some parents hire pageant coaches to teach their child professionally choreographed routines. There have been cases of families going into debt or losing their homes because of overextending family resources to cover the costs that the pageants required. It is estimated that the attire and props as they relate to costs of putting a child through a beauty pageant can range from $300 and upward of $5000 depending on the level of competition. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_beauty_pageant Wee Baby Miss: 0-12 months
Baby Miss: 13-23 months
Wee Toddler Miss: 2 yrs.
Toddler Miss: 3 yrs.
Tiny Miss: 4-5 yrs.
Mini Miss: 6-7 yrs.
Little Miss: 8-9 yrs.
Jr. Miss: 10-13 yrs.
Young Miss: 14-16 yrs.
Teen Miss: 17-19 yrs.
Miss: 20-28 yrs.
Ms.: 29 yrs. & up Bibliography