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Plate Tectonic Concept Map

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Abby Hart

on 14 May 2013

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Transcript of Plate Tectonic Concept Map

Rock Types Igneous Rocks Plate Boundary Types Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonic Theory Volcano Types Cinder Cone Volcano Abby Hart
Geology 115 Plate Tectonic Concept Map This theory is the explanation for earthquakes , volcanoes, mountain building and the age of the oceanic floor. The convection currents in the earth's mantle are the driving mechanism for plate tectonics. The earth's plates move at the velocity of the speed that your fingernail grows. Divergent: also known as constructive. These
boundaries are where new oceanic floor is being
created.
Convergent: also known as destructive. These
boundaries are where the old oceanic floor is
being pushed under another plate and melted
back into the lithosphere
Transform: these boundaries neither create or
destroy oceanic or continental crust. Divergent Boundaries Convergent Boundaries Transform Boundaries Seafloor Spreading Rift Valleys There are three types of
convergent plate boundaries:
1. Continental - Oceanic
2. Oceanic - Oceanic
3. Continental - Continental Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Continental - Oceanic Reverse faults Continental - Continental Oceanic - Oceanic Stress Type: Tension
Fault Type: Normal

Creates ridges in the ocean floor.

There are some volcanoes. The earthquakes generally occur along the boundary and are pretty shallow

The ocean floor is very young due to seafloor spreading

Example: Fault Block
Mountains
Mid Atlantic Floor Stress Type: Compressional

Subduction process

Creates trenches and many composite volcanoes

This type of convergent boundary generally
produces deep earthquakes along the coast.

The ocean floor around these boundaries is moderately young because of divergent plate boundaries nearby

Example: West coast of South America Stress type: Compressional
Fault type: Reverse

Subduction process

Creates trenches and many volcanoes in the ocean that may or may not reach or rise above the surface.

This type of convergent boundary generally
produces deep earthquakes along the boundary.

The ocean floor around these boundaries are moderately old.

Example: Marianna trench
Japanese Islands
Alaskan Peninsula Stress type: Compressional
Fault type: Reverse

Builds very large mountains

Earthquakes: a few, most at shallower depths and a few at deeper depths

Example: Himalayas The rock at a continental - continental convergent boundary is metamorphic because of all the heat and compression How are these connected? Stress type: Sheer stress
Fault type: Strike - slip

There is only ONE fault line!
They are generally along divergent plate
boundaries.

Example: San Andreas Fault
West coast of North America (excluding the
Juan de Fuca Plate) Characteristics: -Formed from heat and pressure
- Denser
- Foliation - alignment of minerals
- Coarsening of Crystals
-Equigranular crystalline texture Involved in plate tectonics
Burial
> not changing composition but
minerology changes temperature must be 200 degrees C or
higher and the rock needs to have energy Shield Volcano Composite Volcano Cinder Cone Volcano
Type 2 -Smallest of the three types
-slopes are 30 - 40 degrees
-mafic cinders
-mostly formed in a year
-Examples:
Paricutin (1943)
Sunset Crater Shield Volcano
Type 1 -Largest of the three
-Slopes are less than 15 degrees
-They have mafic lava flows
- Take over a million years to form
Example:
Mauna Loa Composite Volcano
Type 3 -Most dangerous of the three.
- Intermediate in size
-Slopes are between 15 and 30 degrees
-They have alternating layers of pyroclastics and felsic lava flows Hazards: -Lahars
-Pyroclastic Flows
-Ash Falls
-Carbon Dioxide formed from crystallization of the silicate minerals

Most common type of rock

examples: basalt and granite How are these connected? The continental plate is made up of granite and the oceanice plate is made of basalt. Both of these rocks are igneous rocks! Formed from compactation and cementation

These are the most common types of rocks found on the surface.

There are two types of Sedimentary rocks: clastic and chemical How are these connected? Composite volcanoes are formed along this type of convergent plate boundary.
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