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Science 9 - Variation and Characteristics
Transcript of Science 9 - Variation and Characteristics
1] ____________________ - a feature such as eye colour or wing shape.
2] ____________________ - a variation of a characteristic, such has brown eye colour versus blue eye colour. ***Not all traits are visible***
Characteristics and Traits characteristics traits Heritable and Non-Heritable Characteristics Heredity is the _____________ of characteristics from one generation to the next. _____________ characteristics are those that are passed from parent to offspring. Some examples include: __________________________________.
Non-heritable characteristics are those that cannot genetically be passed from one generation to the next. For example, if someone dyes his or her hair a different colour, offspring will not inherit the dyed colour.
transmission Heritable eye colour, hair type and skin colour Discrete and Continuous Variation • Characteristics can show either discrete or continuous variation. Discrete variation refers to traits that have a defined form (the “either/or” form of a characteristic). For example, your earlobes are either attached or they are not; you are either able to curl your tongue or you are not. Continuous variation refers to traits that have a range of forms. Some examples include:_________________________________. height, weight, hand-span and shoe size Variation + the Environment • Some variation in individual organisms results from interactions with the environment. For example, height is a characteristic that is inherited, but it can also be affected by diet. In general, North Americans are taller than they were in the 19th century because of better nutrition and access to a wider variety of foods.
• Variations caused by interactions with the environment usually ___________ be passed from parents to offspring. If we take height for example, if a child of tall parents does not receive proper nutrition, he or she will probably not be as tall as his or her parents.
cannot Heredity and Genetics • People have taken advantage of heritable characteristics to produce many breeds of domestic plants and animals for example. Having many breeds of the same species ensures that there is variation of characteristics within a species. For example, there are many dog breeders who breed for a specific dog and desired traits. DNA's Role • REMEMBER: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) carries all of our information. Heritable characteristics are passed on from parents to offspring through DNA. DNA not only tells cells what to do, it also tells cells what type of cell it should become and what type of ___________ will be formed from the group of cells.
• Cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T) and adenine (A) are the four chemicals that form a code in your DNA that cells can “read”. The genetic code is based on the arrangement of these chemicals. If you look at the structure of DNA, you will notice that these chemicals pair up. Together, they are called a _____________.
organism base pair • Cytosine (C) always pairs with ______________.
• Thymine (T) always pairs with ______________. adenine (A) guanine (G) Base Pairs