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The Second Industrial Revolution
Transcript of The Second Industrial Revolution
* The adding machine made it easier and less time-consuming for people to do math.
* The telegraph, made by Samuel Morse, offered almost instant communication, which made it easier to have businesses in other areas and to make more money. Why Is This Time Period Important? * It had many new inventions being made, making owning a business with many stores easier, which created more jobs. It also made it easier to produce and sell more items making more money for businesses. This time period affected future technological advances. Businesses * Businesses were in control at this time. They bribed and did favors for government officials in exchange for laws and policies that helped them.
* Monopolies, which were created in this time, means that one business or person owns everything.
* Monopolies eliminated competition and no one could control them. Monopolies also hurt the consumer. Immigrants * Businesses were expanding and needed more workers. People in other countries heard there were jobs in America and immigrated to the United States. They also left their homelands to escape political and religious persecution. They thought the streets were paved with gold.
* In this time, most immigrants came from Southern and Eastern Europe. Most immigrants used to come from Britain, Germany, and Scandinavia.
* Immigrants, in this time, spoke many different languages and had many different religions. Ellis Island * Ellis Island opened January 1,1892.
* Ellis Island, where most immigrants landed, contained hospitals, dorms, and processing centers.
* Immigrants could only come into the United States if they didn't have any obvious health problems or a criminal background. They needed proof of previous employment (history of jobs), and they needed some money to begin their new life. Immigrant Life * Immigrants didn't get the dream life they thought they would in America. Most, if not all, had many hardships here they were not expecting.
* Lots of businesses needed unskilled workers because machines could do the work faster and for not as much. Because of this, many immigrants got jobs. Many jobs had long hours, hard work, dangerous working conditions, and paid very little. Americans' Feelings About Immigrants * Many Americans had prejudices against immigrants and didn't want them coming here.
* The United States wanted to pass a law that immigrants had to prove that they were literate in some language but the president vetoed it. Why is This Time Period Important? (Continued) * Because there were more jobs in cities, millions of people moved from farms to cities in 1870 to 1920; affecting the growth of cities.
* Hearing that there were jobs in the United States and because they were facing other difficult things in their countries, immigrants came here for better lives. Innovations and Inventions
(Continued) * The telephone, which was invented by Alexander Graham Bell, made it easier and cheaper to talk across long distances and it made it easier to have many factories in other places, making more of a profit.
* The escalator, invented by Jesse W. Reno, made it easier and faster to get up and down stairs. * Railroads made transportation of goods like iron ore, coal, and timber faster and more cost-effective.
* The lightbulb, invented by Thomas Edison, made it so people could do the work at night they used to only be able to do in the day.
* The typewriter, invented by Christopher Scholes, made it easier and faster to write. Innovations and Inventions
(Continued) Innovations and Inventions
(Continued) * There are two ways that people made monopolies: vertical integration and horizontal integration.
* Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration with his steel company. He owned all of the levels of production.
* John Rockefeller used horizontal integration with his standard oil company. He owned all of the companies in his industry. Businesses
(Continued) * An assembly line allowed goods to be mass produced and sold more cheaply.
* Henry Ford was the first to use the assembly line so he could reduce the price of the Model T. Each worker stayed in the same spot and did the same thing for that shift.
* Another thing businesses created in this time was corporations. Corporations are companies that sells shares of ownership to the public. Ellis Island
(Continued) * Only two percent of immigrants were denied entry.
* Between 1870 and 1920, more than 20 million immigrants arrived.
* April 17, 1907, was known as "Peak Day." More immigrants (11,747) arrived at Ellis Island this day than any day in its history. Ellis Island
(Continued) * After they were checked, immigration officers normally changed an immigrants name to make it more American. most immigrants didn't argue out of fear.
* To make sure they got on the right train, immigration officers pinned the immigrant's ticket on the immigrant.
* Some immigrants were sent to the west from New York. Immigrant Life
(Continued) * Because immigrants lacked money to buy farmlands, they had to settle in industrial cities for jobs.
* Most immigrant families had to have every member of the family work to survive.
* Most immigrants lived in tenements, which were often overcrowded and dirty. Businesses
(Continued) * Immigrants normally lived in areas with other immigrants of similar backgrounds.
* Many Americans and immigrants suffered from disease and poor health because of overcrowded cities that grew too fast.
* Immigrants wanted to assimilate as much as possible, so their children would have a better future. Americans' Feelings About Immigrants
(Continued) * The United States banned Chinese people from coming but the ban was lifted after about ten years.
* Some Americans felt bad for immigrants and wanted to help them. They made settlement houses, called Hull houses, which provided them with a kindergarten education and public playgrounds.