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Imperialism, The Great War, and Uneasy Peace
Transcript of Imperialism, The Great War, and Uneasy Peace
Treaty of Versailles
: British, French, Russian, & German,
: Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Empire
: Italy & USA
Euro. Dominance 1300-1800's
Euro, Japan & USA 1870-1930
1500-1800 European Dominance
1840-1920 USA Dominance
Berlin conference 1880
USA Stays out but doesn't Stop it
Social Darwinism at its worse!
The Great War
Japanese and USA Dominance
Based on trade
World War I
The ideas that no matter what choices you make, as a country, the results will still lead to war.
The ideas that your nation is the best and will dominate others. Therefore, you create a large military to expand and defend colonial possessions
The idea that a nation will expand to control areas of natural resources and alliances.
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Forces the Balkan Nations to use their Pan-Slavic Alliance to bring Russia into the war.
Military and Bolshevik Revolutions
1917 & 1918
Communist takeover of Russia horrifies Europe especially the Entente powers
Makes Enemies w/ Everyone and no one trust them.
Soviet Leadership is not formally invited to Versailles
Civil War in Russia continues till 1922
Allied Expeditions supported anti-Bolsheviks
Isolationist and Neutrality
In 1914, the USA, Japan, and Belgium all have declarations of neutrality.
Countries like the USA continue trade with both the Alliance and the Entente
In Late 1917, a Convoy system is developed by USA and GB
Battle of Galipoli: fought for control of Bosporus and Black Sea
included Aussies, NZers, Canadians, Africans, Turks, and Arabs
Unrestricted Submarine attacks on International Trade
Sinking of the HMS Lusitania leads to the death of over 100 Americans
US Post War Failures
Attack on USSR - Seeds of the Cold War
Failure to sign Treaty or join League of Nations - US Intl Power diminishes greatly
Senate leaders refuse to acknowledge Wilson's work - Isolationists take control of the Senate
Refusals to help rebuild Germany - extended unrest and short-lived revolts
Isolationist policies during 1920s & 1930s - made Great Depression worse instead of better.
League of Nations
This weak alliance would never keep the peace and failed to enforce the treaties obligations.
Relationship between events during the late 1800s until 1920.
Imperialism, The Great War & the Uneasy Peace
Declarations of War
W Wilson (USA) 14 Points & Self-determination
DL Georges (GB) demands new land & colonies
G Clemenceau (FR) demands reparations
V. Orlando (IT) demands land from a weakened A-H
Pan-Slavism- Russia would protect Slavic and Balkan nations from A-H & Germany
U-Boat Attacks and Unrestricted Warfare
30 Day Ultimatum
Help Me Russia. Help, Help Me Russia
I'm scared of Russia Protect me Germany.
Schlieffen Says, Two Front war is bad.
Go get the waffles and wine, then the Vodka
Because you burned the waffles...
I will shoot you.
I want cheap furniture, the Black Sea, and you like the Germans
The Schlieffen plan has failed. We need help.
We want the Suez Canal and Egypt!
WE need help... Let's ask the....
Victorian Cousins: Kaiser of Germany and the Tzar of Russia wrote letters to avoid the war... kinda.
American Businesses are saying, "we should supply both sides of war."
Pres. Wilson's 1916 Campaign.
"He kept us out of the War." But he did invade Mexico.
Declares war after HMS Lusitania Sinking and the Zimmerman Note between Germany and Mexico
Revolts in St. Petersburg dissolve the Tzar's government.
The Bolsheviks (Communist) quickly take control of the Western parts of Russia
They quickly sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany.
Seeding the countries of Poland (coal) and the Ukraine (wheat) to Germany.
The Entente powers send troops to fight the Bolsheviks.
Support the elected Duma (Parliament) but not to help the Tzar. (He is feared to be dead.)
Submarines - attack shipping.
Airplanes and Blimps- bomb civilians in GB
Poisonous Gas- kills and injures thousands
Trenches- slow worthless fighting
Tanks- used to breach trenches
Propaganda- used to push government support for war.
Arab Revolt east of Palestine
The Ottoman Empire is divided into British and French Protectorates, countries like Iraq and Saudi Arabia are randomly created. No real attention is brought to the issues of the Arabs or the continued American occupation of Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico.
Germany would be stripped of its military power and Austria-Hungary would be separated. Germany, Austria, Hungary, & new nations must be self-determined.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk would be nullified and lands are freed from German and Russian control. (Poland , Ukraine , Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania).
China would be redefined to include European, American, & Japanese areas of control. Occupation of Korea by Japan continues. German colonies are given to Japan.
US War Agencies
War Industries Board
Nationalized US involvement in war productions.
Coordinated production of war materials.
Headed by Bernard Baruch
Bonds sold to directly fund the war.
US spending was appx $44mil/day = $32billion total
National War Labor Board-
Worked with labor unions to stop strikes.
Increased union memberships and protected jobs
US War Agencies
Rationed food sources for soldiers
Wheatless Mon., Meatless Tues., Porkless Thurs.
Headed by Herbert Hoover
Com. on Public Info.
US propaganda Board
created the movie "Under Four Flags
US Wartime Domestic Issues
W. Wilson had to balance a need to extend US influence and an anti-war movement. War issues and limits on speech would abound.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Schenck v. United States (1919) & Abrams v. United States (1919)
Espionage and Sedition Acts restrict free speech and anti-war speech. Also limits contact with enemy combatants.
Groups are charged with protesting the draft and sending mailings to explain how to "dodge" the draft.
Supreme Court rules that freedom of speech is only limited if it presents "a clear and present danger." This permanently limits speech based on protections.
This will lead to Colonization, Alliances, Super Alliances, and WAR: Crimea, Cuba, Philippines, Pananma...
Empires will begin to create colonial and Continental Alliances as the Balance of Power in Europe changes from Russia vs All to Germany vs. All
Great Eight Empires
US President sent ships to China and Japan.
Cmd Matthew Perry forced Japan to sign an open trade agreement
Ties would grow until Chinese Exclusion act and Gentleman's Agreement
Dole Fruit Co. was pushing for more power on the islands.
Hawaiian Monarchs Refused to yield power to the Monopoly
US Marines were sent in to support a Coup d'Etat by Dole and his supporters
McKinley wanted the island to provide a Naval Coaling station and to solidify US presence in Pac O.
US involvement in Mexico, a Civil War, Reconstruction and the Native America Wars slowed expansion.
Additionally, economic investments of 1870's led to a prolonged depression.
Eventually,Jingoist, Republicans who believe in expansion, would gain control of the WH.
Cuba & Philippines were agitating for "indp" from Spain
USS Maine blows up
Yellow Journalist create a "WAR!"
in Philippines (Gone)
US Army Invades Cuba and beats Spanish "Army"
McKinley was a Jingoist who was afraid of a war with a European power but was still forced by popular support to enter the war.
Cuba is forced to sign the Platt Amendment and becomes a Protectorate of the US
During the 1950s a Communist Revolution expells the US leadership and Joins USSR Alliances.
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Puerto Rico follows suit and gives far less resistance
Navy Bases for the Caribbean are built to Protect Gulf of Mex.
Filipino-Amer. War would last for two years.
Leaders of the country would constantly ask for independence
Small Scale Riots and terrorist attacks would persist until WW2
"White Man's Burden"
GB , France, and Belgium all failed at building Central American Canal
US (TR) ask Colombia to build, Told No!
US backed Panamanian Indp
US gets Panama Canal Zone and builds the "Big Ditch"
Boxer Rebellion led to the Eight Nations coming to the rescue of the Empress Ci Xi
China is divided into "Spheres of Influence" for each of the Eight
US sends Marines and merchants into China until early 1930's
US proposed making China an Open Trade region but European Countries and Japan disagreed.
Mexican Revolution 1910-1920
Pancho Villa and other military leaders lost support from US when Wilson.
Villa attacked towns in NM to get needed
US sent +3000 troops into Mexico to find Villa
US-Mexico relations would be disastrous for the next 50 years.
Gen, Pershing wrote that "when the true history is written, it will not be a very inspiring chapter for school children, or even grownups to contemplate
Yellow Journalism was the idea of promoting crazy and scandalous news articles to make money and shape public opinion. Joseph Pulitzer and William Hurst both made comments about creating the War.
Joins on the side of the Entente but only after it is apparent that they can take land from A-H and parts of north Africa.
Is never able to gain an advantage against Italy or Serbia and begins to experience civil unrest by the end of 1917.
After being almost starved into submission, they surrender. Berlin devolves into chaos and a workers revolt break out in the streets.
The leaders of French Indochina ask for independence but are refused by the conference. They leave SE Asia and go to Soviet Russia for politcial training and alliance building.
Ho Chi Minh!
TR uses his popularity and NY/Tammany Hall ties to get the 1900 VP Nomination
Great Eight Powers & Colonial Possessions
Trenches & Technology
Propaganda & Unrestricted Warfare
Lawrence of Arabia Leads attacks of terrorism.
Attack cities of Jerusalem and Damascus
Allied Expeditionary Forces
US and GB send troops to Archangel (Siberia) and Vladivostok (Pacific Fleet)
Archangel: Purpose was to link up and help anti-Bolshevik Army take back over in Russia.
Vladivostok: Purpose was to keep Japan from invading Mongolia, and eastern Russia. (1904 Russo-Japanese War Repeat)
Most soldiers were confused about the reasons for fighting in Russia
Bolshevik troops began to invade and force communist leaders into power in Ukraine, Poland, and Slovak Republics.
Polish fighters pushed the Soviet Army out of Poland but failed at "Liberating" Ukraine.
Poland would become a buffer state between Communist Soviet Russia and the new Central European Republics.
1917 Feb: Groups of leaders took over the elected Duma and ousted the former Tzar as ruler of Russia.
military retains some control.
1917 October: Bolsheviks Take Over
Military is run out of St. Petersburg
Bolshevik/Red Army purges the military leadership
anti-Bolsheviks begin to fight back for the next three years.
German Military leaders fought to end the war on the Western Front
Following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, soldier were moved.
Planned victories in France collpased quickly because of new US troops.
Worker's Unions began to revolt as the war continued w/o success.
Sailors also revolted and Chaos btw German Communist, Military Personnel, and National Police ensued. 1918-1919