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Introduction to Professional Communications

Brett Wellman

on 4 June 2015

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Transcript of EN112

Introduction to Professional Communication - EN 112

is an extremely important part of your speech.

The introduction serves numerous purposes.

The introduction allows you to introduce yourself to the audience, as well as the topic of your speech.

For some speeches it is appropriate to use the introduction to tell the audience your connection and/or interest in the topic.
The introduction of your speech is your chance to get the audience
and interested in your speech.

In addition to briefly mentioning the main topics of your speech, you can include a
in your introduction.

can be a unique fact, statistic, quote, story and/or question that gets your audience interested in listening to your speech.
Click on the link below to learn some tips to help
you write an engaging introduction.

Plan Your Introduction

This course is intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the communication process and to consider their competence as workplace communicators. The course focuses on gathering, organizing, and presenting written, oral and visual information. Team-building skills are developed through collaborative learning environments. Technical communication skills are emphasized.

•To promote critical thinking and problem solving
•To develop teaming awareness and skills
•To create awareness of technology in our world
•To practice professional communication skills
•To instill confidence and self-empowerment through the study of communication

Upon successful course completion, students will be able to:
•Collaborate in teams to gather information and create oral presentations and written documents
•Evaluate self and team members on project contributions and teaming skills
•Prepare and deliver oral and visual presentations
•Gather information using a variety of media
Group dynamics is a system of behaviors occurring within a social group.

Group dynamics can also be known as how people interact and get along in groups or teams.

In the 60s and 70s, Dr. Bruce Tuckman created the “5 Stages of Group Development” which was an outline for the group-decision making process.
Tuckman's Five Stages of Group Development
(pretending to get on or get along with others)

Members attempt to become oriented to the task as well as to one another. Discussion centers around defining the task, how to approach it, and similar concerns. To grow from this stage to the next, each member must give up the comfort of non-threatening topics and risk the possibility of conflict
(letting down the politeness barrier and trying to get down to the issues even if tempers flare up)

Members will start to organize the task, and conflicts will arise over leadership, structure, power, and authority. In order to progress to the next stage, group members must move from a “testing and proving” mentality to a problem-solving mentality. The most important trait in helping groups move on to the next stage seems to be the ability to listen.
Tuckman's Five Stages of Group Development
Tuckman's Five Stages of Group Development
Tuckman's Five Stages of Group Development
(getting used to each other and developing trust and productivity)

Members begin to share feelings and ideas, solicit and give feedback to one another, and explore actions related to the task. Creativity is at a high. The major drawback of this stage is that members may begin to fear the inevitable breakup of the group; they may resist change of any sort.
(working in a group to a common goal on a highly efficient and cooperative basis)

This stage is not reached by all groups. Members can work independently, in subgroups, or as a total unit with equality. By this stage, the group should be the most productive, and has the most unity. Members are task-orientated and genuinely problem-solving.
Tuckman's Five Stages of Group Development
(mourning the adjournment of the group)

This stage involves the termination of the group after the completion of the task. A planned conclusion usually includes recognition for participation and achievement with an opportunity for members to say goodbye.
Task Oriented Roles
These roles contribute to the group’s ability to accomplish its goals through enhancing members’ participation and the free flow of information within the group.
– suggest the group’s goals and offers new ideas or propose new solutions

Information providers
– offer facts relevant to the issue under discussion. These facts might include researched evidence or examples based on personal experience.

Information gatherers
– ask other members to share facts they know, or seek out needed information from other sources.

– add supporting facts, examples, or ideas to a point that someone else has made during the discussion.
– attempt to make the meaning of another member’s statement more precise.

– offer their own judgments about the ideas put forward during a discussion.

– identify emerging agreements and disagreements amongst the group as a whole.

– take notes during the meeting, tracking major decisions and plans made by the group. They may send memos or emails to group members summarizing previous meetings providing agendas for future meetings, or reminding people of tasks they agreed to work on between meetings.
Maintenance-Oriented Roles
These roles help sustain and strengthen efficient and effective interpersonal relations in a group. When members perform maintenance roles effectively, groups are more likely to work together comfortably as a team, support one another, and present findings or recommendations that reflect group consensus
A collage is an artistic composition of materials and objects pasted over a surface, often with unifying lines and color.

A collage is used as a visual representation of a topic.

Communicating through visuals, as it sounds, is the use of visual aids to convey ideas or information that can be read or looked upon.
Selecting the right images
Images for your collage should be clear, large, and colorful.

Images should accurately represent the message you’re conveying.

Images should be appropriate for all audiences.
Images to avoid
Collage Speech
Students are to create a collage (a group of images cut and paste onto one page, with little to no space between each picture) that visually can be used to introduce themselves to their classmates.

Students should utilize their interests, their future field of study, and any other identifying characteristics. Students will cut and paste images digitally (on the computer) or by cutting and pasting images onto a sheet of construction paper.

The collage must completely fill one PowerPoint slide or a sheet of construction paper. A maximum of six words can be used in the entire collage.
Leader Speech
"In your opinion, who in history has been a great leader, and why?"
Working in a group, students will select one
person who they believe is a leader and
present this information as a group.
Process / Demonstrative Speech
Students will prepare a group 5- minute speech explaining a process.

How To Make ...
How To Fix ...
How To Use ...
How To Do ...
How ... Works
How ... Is Done, Produced or Made
Example: How to build a shed.
Fallout Shelter Activity
Traffic Jam Activity
Zoom! Activity
Group Dynamics Challenge: SGA Meeting
A tribute speech is a speech that honors a person or group. A tribute speech often includes details of the positive impact that the subject of the speech has had on the person giving the speech and/or others. A tribute speech can be given about someone living or dead.
Tribute Speech
Please prepare a tribute speech about someone who has impacted your life in a positive way. The speech must be about someone who you know/knew personally. In your speech please discuss at least two positive traits of this person and illustrate those traits through the use of a story (one for each trait). Also, identify one weakness (in a respectful way) that this person has/had and explain that through the use of a story. Lastly, explain how this person is/was important to you and what you have learned from them.
Tribute Speech Assignment
If it is helpful for you to write out the speech in its entirety first, you can do that. However, if you do that then you must turn the written speech into an outline. Please follow the example on sample outline in this Prezi. Please review the grading rubric and be sure to include all required elements for this speech. Practice to improve your skills.
Helpful Suggestions
Tribute Speech Grading Rubric
The conclusion of a speech is an important element of any speech/presentation because the audience often remembers most what occurs at the end of a speech/presentation. A quality and engaging conclusion provides the speaker an opportunity to leave the audience with points to think about and a reminder of the main points presented in the speech.
Concluding Your Speech/Presentation
When preparing the conclusion of your speech/presentation, you want to look over your outline and pay particular attention to the main points of your speech. You should prepare a conclusion (in your outline) that reminds the reader of the main points of the speech/presentation that you plan to present to your audience. To do this successfully and with ease, it is especially important that you practice your speech. Practicing your speech will help you commit to the main points that you prepared in your outline. You do not want to present a conclusion that does not support the main points of the speech/presentation that you just gave to an audience.

You want to avoid saying the statements below or statements that are similar to these:
“That’s all”
“I’m done”
“My speech is over”
What NOT TO SAY when
concluding a speech/presentation
In addition to reminding the audience of the main points of your speech/presentation, consider including one of these elements:

•An interesting statistic that relates to your topic

•A quote by a famous person that relates to your topic

•A question that relates to your topic that leaves the audience thinking about your speech, even after it has concluded
Helpful Suggestions for
Creating an Engaging Conclusion
Practice Writing an Engaging Conclusion

1.) Choose a speech/presentation that you previously gave in this class. Write an engaging conclusion that also summarizes the main points of the speech/presentation.

2.) You can use the Internet to research for an interesting fact or quote, if you would like to incorporate either or both into the conclusion.

3.) Turn this conclusion into an outline (brief points that will help you remember the conclusion)

4.) Choose a partner and show them read the outline for your conclusion. See if they can guess the main topic of your speech. (Make sure that the main topic of your speech is not written on the top of your outline).

5.) Present your conclusion to the class. See if a member of the audience can guess the main topic of your speech, based on your conclusion.
A speech/presentation is only as good as its delivery. You can prepare a fascinating speech/presentation but if no one can hear or understand you then the messages that you trying to portray to your audience will be lost.
Delivering Your Speech
Delivery Skills
Fully and clearly articulate all words in your speech. Learn how to pronounce any words that are unfamiliar to you. Draw attention to important points by raising or lowering volume.
Speak loud enough for all members
of your audience to hear you,
without shouting. Your volume will
be different for different sized audiences and different venues.
(no shouting)
The speed at which you deliver your speech/presentation. Do not rush through your speech/presentation. Do not speak too slowly or you will bore your audience.
Rate of Delivery
Eye Contact
Casually and confidently make eye
contact with all audience members
during the speech/presentation. Be
able to gently scan the room.
Show that you are interested in your topic by smiling during your speech/presentation. Be enthusiastic about the information that you are presenting. Avoid fidgeting with your body or your outline. Do not slouch. If possible, gently move around while making eye contact with audience members. Remember, you are the expert of the topic, while giving your speech/presentation.
Try to make people smile and get involved ...
The way to assure that you are successful at these skills is to practice numerous times before giving your speech/presentation to the real audience. Practice in front of
someone else. Then ask them how you did in relation to all of the delivery skills.
Be sure to read the directions and follow the directions given. If you have questions, ask your professor. While giving your speech, remain committed to your outline, so you do not lose your place or start rambling off topic.
Introduce yourself to your audience. Say “good morning” or “good afternoon”. Thank your audience for listening to your speech/presentation, during either the introduction and/or conclusion. Use academic and/or professional language. Do not use slang or profanity. Avoid repeating the same words or phrases too often, such as “um” and “ya know”.
An Impromptu Speech is a speech that you give with little or no preparation time. Assignment: Please choose one of the topics below and briefly prepare to give a speech on this topic. Aim to speak on the topic that you choose between 1.5 minutes (90 seconds) and 2 minutes (120 seconds). You can write down some brief notes to assist you during your speech. However, do not write out a speech and read directly off the paper. You want to try and speak extemporaneously (given without notes).
Impromptu Speech
Tell us about a nickname you have and how you got it.
Explain three uses for a pencil besides for writing.
You are an ant. Convince an anteater to not eat you.
You are a salesperson trying to sell us the shirt you have on.
Explain how a smart person might not be wise.
Tell us about the hardest thing you have ever done.
You are a famous sports player. Describe your best moment of a game.
Tell us about what you think is the best job.
Tell us how to become a millionaire.
Tell us about the best dream you've ever had (PG-13, please).
Tell us about your favorite or least-favorite holiday.
Explain three different ways to eat an Oreo cookie.
Tell us how to make your favorite meal.
Explain the rules to your favorite game.
If everything in the world had to change to the same color,
what color would you choose and why?
Explain three uses for a drinking glass other than for holding a liquid.
Convince your boss that he/she should give all employees their birthdays off from work.
Topic Choices
•Start and end by stating your topic. (2 points)

•Don’t use "filler words" (um, er, like) - simply be quiet if you need a moment. (2 points)

•Make eye contact with your audience. (2 points)

•Speak for between 90 and 120 seconds. (4 points)
Grading Rubric
Please research, print and read one article that you find interesting and that discusses green technology in your field of study your major)/future career.

Articles can discuss environmentally friendly practices (green technology) being used, created and/or needed in your field of study (your major).

This article is then to be used as the main subject of a formal speech.
Green Technology in Your Major Speech
Introducing Your Speech
For this speech please identify and outline least two main points of the article and outline one aspects of the article that you found interesting and/or that taught you new information.

If it is helpful for you to write out the speech in its entirety first, you can do that.

However, if you do that then you must turn the written speech into an outline.

Please review the grading rubric and be sure to include all required elements for this speech. Practice to improve your skills.
Sample Outline
What is a vision board?
Vision Board
A vision board is a board that is a collection of several pictures of things or words that you want to have in the future. This can include both long term and short term goals. Topics such as:

Material things (The type of house, car, clothing you want)
Family life (marriage, kids, single)
Work / Achievements (job, career goals, acclaims - Grammy, Emmy, Pulitzer...)
Spiritual (religion, pilgrimage)

The pictures are to represent what it is that you want. Different pictures may mean different things. You will need to be able to explain why you chose the photos and words that you choose.
Here are some different examples of vision boards:
Examples of Vision Boards
Materials Needed:

Poster board or construction paper (22 x 28) - any color is fine
Glue / Tape

Items MUST be cut out from magazines. You cannot do this assignment digitally

You have total creative license on how you place items on your board. Fill up the board completely.

Place your board in a place where you can see it frequently. It could be by a mirror; close to your bed; as you walk in the door. The purpose is for it to be a constant visual.
How to Create Your Vision Board
How You Will Be Graded
During the semester you will have 3 check-in grades. To check in, you will take a photo of your board and upload that photo to the Portal. Boards are to be completely full by presentation date- the second to last week of classes.

For the final presentation of the board you will do the following:

1. Write a 1 - 2 page reaction paper on the process of The Vision Board: Write about your board. Describe the key pictures and/or themes. What did you learn by doing the board? How did you feel about the doing the board in the beginning? Did your feelings change as you went through the process? Would you do something like this again in the future? Why or why not?

This is to be written in: MLA form. You will be graded on how you conveyed your thoughts, grammar / use of academic language

2. Explain and present your board to the class:
You will be graded on the delivery methods
Organization of your presentation
Adherence to time limit of 6 min
60% of people are visual learners.

80% of people who write their goals down accomplish them.

Vision boards are a tool to help you map out those goals and should be a constant reminder to take steps to achieve them.

When we have goals we are more of a contributor to society and life is more meaningful. When we know where we are; who we are; and what we want to do we are able to communicate with others in a clear and succinct way.
What is the Purpose of a Vision Board?

Vision Board

Introducing Your Speech
Delivery Skills
Tribute Speech
1.) Please write a brief and engaging introduction that highlights two main points for one of the following speech topics below. You can choose any angle for any of the topics. You can use the Internet to research for an interesting quote or statistic, if you would like. Do not forgot to introduce yourself as part of the introduction.

2.) Turn this written introduction into an outline (brief points that will help you remember how you want to introduce your speech)

3.) Choose a partner and have them read the outline for your introduction. Have them tell you what they think that the main topic of your speech is, based on the outline. (Make sure that the main topic of your speech is not written on the top of your outline).

4.) Present your introduction to the class. Seek feedback from the class about how you presented:
•Was your introduction engaging?
•Did the audience fully understand what your speech/presentation was to be about?
Standardized Testing
Community Service
Chocolate Milk
Affordable Rent
Public Transportation
Sample Outline
Impromptu Speech
Green Technology Speech
Grading Rubric
Meaningful Object Speech
Meaningful Object Speech
What is it?
How old is it?
Where is it from?
When did you get it?
How did you get it? Who did you get it from?
Describe what it looks like – size, shape, color, material, weight…etc
Where do you keep it?
What is it made of?
Does it have any special features? If so, what are they?
Why does it have special meaning for you?
What do you want the class to learn about you from sharing this item?
*Anything else?*

Group Dynamics
Things to keep in mind:

- what makes this person a leader?

- what is their impact on nation /world?

-what are some of their accomplishments?
Group Dynamic Activities
Member Roles
Creating a
Effective Group Leadership
Successful groups depend on capable participation
from each group member, however a group leader's actions are critical

It's difficult for any group to function without an effective leader. Somebody needs to organize group meetings, keep the group focused, encourage participation by all members, mediate conflict, and facilitate decision making.

The leader does not have to take control, but he or she must help the members reach a decision and achieve goals as a group.
Points to Ponder
How do groups acquire leaders?
What happens if there is no leader?
What happens if there are too many leaders?
Selecting a Leader
A designated leader is one in which an external authority selects the leader. For example, a mayor may appoint a blue-ribbon committee to investigate ways to improve mass transit and designate a leader to guide the mission.
An implied leader is someone with preexisting authority or skills particularly well suited to the task at hand. For example, a marketing manager forms a task force to evaluate her company's advertising strategies. With her marketing background, she is seen as the leader of the group.
An emergent leader is one who comes to be recognized as the leader by the group's members over time. While not officially elected or even named as such, an emergent leader usually comes to assume the role because he or she has the most to commit to the group, demonstrates exceptional competence and goodwill, or simply takes initiative and starts leading.
A successful leader...
leads meetings
addresses procedural needs
models expected behaviors
facilitates discussions
help members groupthink
facilitates decisions
helps organize the group's presentation
manages conflict
resolves conflicts quickly
maintains focus on task
manages disruptions
Points to Ponder
Who do you think is an effective leader?
What makes them effective?
Select someone famous you believe is a great leader and write a 2 page paper supporting this person as a leader based on the characteristics of a leader on the previous slide (this is different from the tribute speech!).

Students should indicate what makes this person a leader, what accomplishments this person has achieved, and the local/national/global impact this person has had on society.
Include if this person was a designated, implied, or emergent leader based on their research of this leader.

Responses should be 2 pages, typed 12 point font, double spaced, and use of proper spelling, grammar, and professional language.

You will be expected to share your ideas with the class in an informal speech as part of the assignment
– decrease tension in group, perhaps by adding humor at the right time or making positive comments.

– attempt to find the common ground and offer solutions that both sides may agree upon.

– inspire other group members by complimenting their ideas and work

– facilitate the exchange of information between group members.

Norm Facilitators
- reinforce healthy group norms and discourage unproductive ones.
Self-Oriented Roles
These roles accomplish little for a group and are motivated by the selfish ends of individual members. Groups with a heavy emphasis on these roles may experience incomplete findings, infighting, and dissension.
– stop the group from moving forward it's objective by refusing to accept decisions the group has made or by rejecting other member's ideas or opinions.

- refuse to make any contribution or to participate in discussions. They may feel out of their element.

– monopolize group interactions, interrupting others, arguing for the sake of arguing, and insisting on having the last word. Their behaviors may stem from feelings of insecurity or aggressive personality.

– the exact opposite of harmonizers - they send the group in irrelevant directions with off-topic comments, perhaps because they have trouble concentrating on a topic or focus on completion of a task.
Demonstrative Speech
In your group decide which roles each person will take to give a process speech. Each person in the group must speak an equal amount of time. Speech should be 5 minutes. (More or less than five minutes will lose points)

Grade breakdown:

Overall Group Performance: 40%
Individual Group Grade: 30%
Outline Grade: 30%

Each person will upload:

The final outline with cues. Do not upload a full written version of the speech.

Directions: Prepare notes about a physical object that is important to you. It cannot be a feeling, a person or a place. Bring the item to class or have a picture of the item to show. You will speak about the object for approximately 3 minutes.

Meaningful Object Speech Questions
Speech Body and Transitions
Instead: Thank you for listening!
Grading focus:

The type of object brought to class.
Thorough completion of all the questions
Use of delivery skills
Confidence in delivery
The Body of Your Speech
of your speech is the majority of your speech. You give listeners a clearer idea of your topic supported by specific examples.
The body of your speech is split into three or four sections

Each sections include facts and examples to support those facts

*The key to a good body of a speech is keeping your facts interesting. Avoid restating facts known to all. Know your audience*
Organizing the Body
Supporting points need to relate to one point
All points need to be parallel
Do not repeat points
Supporting points need to have one main idea
Transitions help with the flow of the speech. Each transition helps to keep the listener interested and following along with the speech.
Transitions be placed:
After the Introduction

Between each body paragraph

Before the conclusion
Types of Body Transitions
Review and Preview
Example: "I have told you a little bit about this topic, now I am going to talk about my first point.
Review and Question
Example: "We have seen where you can find some of the information. Next, how can you prepare to share the example.
Transition to the Conclusion
The transition to the conclusion needs to introduce the conclusion.

You want to wrap up what you have previously spoken about in your last point and ready the audience to revisit all of your topics

Example: "With all of these great activities , you may never want to leave!"
Full transcript