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Pharmacology & toxicology

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by

Mahytab Ezz El-Din

on 31 March 2015

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Transcript of Pharmacology & toxicology

D
Pharmacology & toxicology
Department

Drug Profile 10
A Decade of Achievements

Group
39

Student IDs.:
807 - 828
Metoclopramide
Trade Name
Pharmacological Class
Contraindication & Precautions
Drug Interaction
References
- Primperan.


- Meclopram.

Dopamine Antagonist
Therapeutic Uses
- anti-emetic.

- gastroesophageal reflux disease.

- long standing diabetes mellitus.

- Nausea and vomiting associated with :
chemotherapy , post-operation, GIT infection or migraine.

- persistent type of hiccups.
Mechanism of
action
central
peripheral
Adverse effects
Serious side effects
- tremors,
- Uncontrolled muscle movements,
- Dystonic reactions resembling tetanus.
common side effects
- drowsiness,
- restlessness,
- fatigue,
- anxiety,
- insomnia,
- depression.


Contradicted
with:
- Intestinal obstruction.
- kidney disease.
- liver disease.
- Parkinson's disease.
- Epilepsy.
- Depression.

Precaution
-Don't take, If you are allergic to it.
-Used cautiously:
* with kids.
* During pregnancy, and lactation.
pharmacology ,part 2,by :Abdelfattah Hassan marrie, professor of clinical pharmacology, faculty of medicine cairo university,page:331-332.

applied medical pharmacology ,by:professors of medical pharmacology ,faculty of medicine cairo univesrity ,page :266

http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01233#interactions.

http://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-8679/metoclopramide-oral/details.

http://www.drugs.com/pro/metoclopramide-injection.html


Pharmacokinetics
Absorption
Metoclopramide is
rapidly and
well absorbed
from GIT.
Bioavailability
The absolute oral
bioavailability of metoclopramide
is 80% ± 15.5%.
Peak plasma concentrations
occur at about 1-2 hr.
after a single oral dose.
Distribution
The whole body volume of
distribution is high
(about 3.5 L/kg) which suggests
extensive distribution of drug to
the tissues.
Elimination
Renal impairment affects
the clearance of
metoclopramide.
Approximately 85% of the
radioactivity of an orally
administered dose appears
in the urine within 72 hr.
Drug Comparison
-
Cyclosporine & Tacrolimus
: Metoclopramide increases serum levels.

-
L-DOPA:
Levodopa decreases the effect of metoclopramide.

-
Lurasidone
: Increases toxicity and risk of
extra-pyramidal effects of lurasidone by
anti-dopaminergic effects.

-
Zuclopenthixol
: Additive dopamine D2 receptor antagonism may cause dopaminergic imbalance in the dopamine D1 receptors and dopamine D2 receptors.

Metoclopramide
Meclizine
Full transcript