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Pacific Theater

US2 Cailey, Mark E., Mark Z., Morgan

US History Group 5

on 29 April 2014

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Transcript of Pacific Theater

Island Hopping- To go from one island to the next to secure each individual island to virtually get to the homeland.
Both Okinawa and Iwo Jima were to be used as staging areas to help give tactical support for a large scale invasion of Japan.
•After the Japanese victory at Bataan, General Wainwright fled to the island of Corregidor where the last allied stronghold in the Philippines was located.
Battle of Midway
Burma Campaign
When the Japanese entered the war they planned it to be limited. The principle objective was to secure resources in South East Asia and much of China.
They deemed it necessary to neutralize American striking power.
Jikuysun- For every Japanese soldier, ten American soldiers should be killed; every plane a boat.
They also relied greatly on suicide attacks such as banzai charges, kamikaze, and hara kiri.
Japan War Plan
The most important battle of the Pacific Campaign
Six months after the attack on Pearl Harbor
US Navy defeated the Japanese Navy
US inflicted unrepairable damage to the Japanese Naval Fleet
US code breakers were able to determine that an attack was going to happen and knew the location, time, and date, which enabled the US to be able to prepare an attack of their own.
No Surrender for Japanese
The fighting tactic of the Japanese were based on their religion
-Die for their emperor and empire
-Kill as many enemies before dying
-To surrender or to run away was to dishonor to your family and your country.
The Japanese primarily relied on suicide.
- Kamikaze was a form of suicide including a one manned plane flying into a naval ship.
-Banzai charges were a type of charge invented by the Japanese to rush at the enemy lines, sometimes strapped up with explosives to try and kill as many enemy soldiers as possible.
Only about ten percent of all Japanese soldiers surrendered.
Coral Sea
US Military worked to end the Military Dictatorship in Burma
United States Campaign for Burma (USBC)
The mission of USCB is to build a broad based coalition of grassroots and institutional support for freedom in Burma.
Campaign ended on May 26, 1942. The Allies had lost Burma and they suffered a serious blow from it.
Although Defenders and Invaders saw Burma as nothing but a country to be exploited.
It was just a buffer between China and India.
Burma was also a lifeline, they kept China in the war fighting with the US against Japan.

Fun Fact: Burma is slightly smaller in size than the state of Texas.
Pacific Theater
By: Cailey, Morgan, Mark E., and Mark Z.
The Battle at Coral Sea was fought from May 4th to the 8th in 1942
It was a major naval battle between the Imperial Japanese Navy and Allied Naval and air forces of America and Australia
This battle was the first action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other
It occurred because the Imperial Japanese Navy was attempting to strengthen their defensive positioning for their empire in the South Pacific
Although the Japanese sunk more ships, the battle was actually a strategic victory for the Allies because Japanese expansion was turned back for the first time.
The Japanese fleet carriers Shkaku and Zuikaku, which were damaged in the battle, were unable to participate in the Battle of Midway
US Surrender at the Philippines
•May 6th 1942, U.S. Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright surrendered American troops in the Philippines to the Japanese. He surrendered at midnight and he and all of his surviving troops were evacuated and imprisoned in Manila.
Pacific Geography's affect on Strategies
The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
August 6-9, 1945

These two bombings are the only use of nuclear weapons to this day

Roughly half the deaths in each city occurred on the first day
60% died from flash or flame burns
30% falling debris
10% from other causes

In the following months, many more people died from short term causes
15-20% died from radiation sickness
20-30% from burns
50-60% from other injuries/illnesses

Six days after the bombing of Nagasaki, on August 15, Japan announced its surrender to the Allies.

This lead to the singing the Instrument of Surrender on September 2, which officially ended World War II.
60,000-80,000 killed in Nagasaki
90,000-166,000 killed in Hiroshima
Bataan Death March
Began on April 9, 1942
The Bataan Death March was a forcible transfer by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60-80,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war

These prisoners of war were a result of the three-month long Battle of Bataan

After the Battle, the Japanese didn't know what to do with their prisoners, so they forced them to move to Balanga, the capital of Bataan
Many prisoners died along the way from many causes
For the first few days, the POWs were given no food and were only allowed to drink water from water buffalo wallows
At times, prisoners were forced to bury their fellow people alive at the side of the roads
If anyone disobeyed their commanders, they were executed, beaten, or punished in some other way
Those that fell behind or were unable to walk were often beat or simply just shot
Some of those who fell were beheaded by Japanses officers who were practicing with their samurai swords from horseback

Once they arrived...
Overcrowded conditions and poor hygiene caused dysentery and other diseases to rapidly spread
No medical care was provided by the Japenese
•After the Japanese victory at Bataan, General Wainwright fled to the island of Corregidor where the last allied stronghold in the Philippines was located.

There was constant artillery and bombing attacks against the American and Filipino defenders. Less and less defenders made it hard to hold back Japanese ships so Wainwright decided to throw in the towel.
Island Hopping: Okinawa and Iwo Jima
The Battle of Okinawa
Bloodiest battle of the Pacific
April - June 1945
62,000 American casualties
Japanese used civilians as human shields and weapons.
Constant suicidal attacks from the Japanese throughout the battle.
Reports of kids strapping dynamite to themselves and detonating by hulls of American ships.
•The war in the Pacific was fought for the most part, on a series of islands.
•The allied forces had to rely on a campaign of island hopping. This meant that after they conquered one island they had to start all over again with the next island. This forced the leadership in the Pacific to be somewhat selective of what islands they assaulted.
•Some of the islands assaulted were not very large; this limited the amount of troop movement thus limiting the amount of strategic options.
POWs in World War II
•The treatment of prisoners of war (POWs) was governed by the Geneva Convention; it defines humanitarian protections for prisoners of war. The Western Allies were under strict orders to treat Axis prisoners in line with the convention.
• The Germans were obliged to apply this humane treatment to Jewish prisoners of war who wore the British Army’s uniform, thus sparing them the horrific fate meted out to other Jews.
A group of four prisoners made a successful breakout from Colditz Castle. They slipped out unnoticed through the kitchens into the yard, through the cellar and then finally down to a dry moat and through a park. The group then split into two pairs; all four men managed to reach Switzerland safely.
Colditz Castle
. Including two escapes at the Stalag Luft III camp for airmen, where the men used scavenged objects and materials to dig underground tunnels.
Stalag Luft III
•Even though German camps were nearly impossible to break out of, there were some famous break outs...
• Germany followed the Geneva Convention, but since the Soviet Union neglected to sign it the Germans treated them brutally and 3.3 million Soviets died in captivity.
•In late 1944, the tide of the war turned against Germany, they started to move POWs towards the middle of Germany, away from advancing Allied Armies. The POWs were forced to walk miles to train stations and were taken in cattle trucks to their next destinations. During these ‘Death Marches,’ many were shot or died of exhaustion
Iwo Jima
First American attack on Japanese land
The Americans landed June 5th 1944
The Japanese were very outnumbered in men and arms, but they still continued to fight with no surrender.
22,060 Japanese casualties
- Triple the amount of American casualties.
Japanese surrender on January 6, 1949.
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