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History of the Internet

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nur ismael

on 27 February 2014

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Transcript of History of the Internet

1957: Russians launch Sputnik.
Eisenhower saw the need for the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
ARPA becomes a “technological think-tank for American defense”
Several years later, ARPA starts looking into computer communication and networking
1962: ARPA appoints J. Licklider and L. Roberts to head its computer research program
1962: ARPA appoints J. Licklider and L. Roberts to head its computer research program

Focus on computer communication for military purposes.
1967: Lawrence Roberts of ARPA publishes plan for the first computer network system – the ARPANET
Packet switches were needed. Called Interface Message Processors (IMP), the contract was awarded to BBN
Oct 1969: IMPs installed in UCLA, Stanford, UCSB and Utah
Packet Switching
1961: Leonard Kleinrock uses queuing theory, proposes packet switched networks
More bandwidth efficient
Robust – not reliant on single route

Communication Networks

Telecommunication networks are ~100 years old

Circuit-switched, connection oriented

Intelligent core, dumb edge terminals
Packet Switching
Data traffic is bursty – intervals of activity followed by periods of inactivity.
E.g. Think of a web browsing session
Circuit switched networks would be inefficient
History of the Internet
1969: At UCLA Kleinrock attempts the first ever remote login at Stanford.
Early 70s
ARPANET, with 40 nodes, goes public in 1972
NCP, first host-to-host protocol, enables network applications.
1972: Ray Tomlinson writes email program for ARPANET
First computer to computer chat takes place between Stanford and BBN
1972: Telnet protocol RFC published
1973: FTP protocol RFC published
ARPANET – Each node able to only talk to the other node on the other end of wire
First medium access control – ALOHA Net by Norman Abramson
1973-75: Bob Metcalfe's dissertation leads to the Ethernet protocol
Medium access control protocol for wired networks based on Abramson's ALOHA.
Fathers of the Internet
At DARPA, Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn are working on an architecture to create a “network of networks” - internetting!
Time of tremendous growth
Networks for linking universities together
BITNET – email and ftp (Northeast)
CSNET – linking universities without access to ARPANET
NSFNET: provide access to NSF supercomputing resources
1983: TCP/IP replaces NCP as universal host protocol on Jan 1.
By the end of the 80s, there were 100,000 hosts
NSFNET began to serve as backbone, linking regional networks in US and networks abroad
ARPANET was decommissioned
NSFNET was decommissioned in 1995, most Internet backbone traffic carried by commercial ISPs
Increased commercialization, advent of WWW, all lead to explosion of growth
The Memex
The World Wide Web
Internet Growth
Internet Growth:WWW sites
Internet Growth: Users

Thank You !!!
NeXT computer used by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990, on display in the Microcosm exhibition at CERN. It was the first web server, hypermedia browser and web editor.
Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn
Full transcript