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Summary for AIDS/HIV-Toussaint House

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Glavin Swain

on 17 November 2013

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Transcript of Summary for AIDS/HIV-Toussaint House


Summaries for

By: Toussaint House
History of
Rates of
Areas of the
Facts/Distinguishing Features
Period of
or Cures of
Important People Associated with AIDS/HIV
Cause of the Disease
By: Barron Hoffman

The infection is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

• HIV is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and it attacks your body's immune system. The virus destroys CD4 cells, which help your body fight diseases. HIV can severely damage your immune system and lead to AIDS.
• After HIV is in the body, it attacks and destroys CD4+ cells, which are the part of the body's immune system that fights infection and disease. When HIV weakens or destroys the immune cells, it may lead to certain illnesses or diseases, such as some types of pneumonia or cancer that are more likely to develop in someone who has a weakened immune system. These conditions are a sign that HIV has progressed to AIDS.
• HIV is spread when blood, semen, or vaginal fluids from an infected person enter another person's body, usually through sexual contact, from sharing needles when injecting drugs, or from mother to baby during birth.
• HIV is rarely spread by blood transfusions or organ transplants in the United States because of improved screening procedures.

• For nearly 30 years, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) have been shrouded in many myths and misconceptions. In some cases, these mistaken ideas have prompted the very behaviors that cause more people to become HIV-positive. Although unanswered questions about HIV remain, researchers have learned a great deal. Here are the top ten myths about HIV, along with the facts to dispute them.

Mortality Rates
By: Seth Frederick
At AIDS peak in the USA, 1992, deaths caused by AIDS reached 11 deaths per 100 persons. In 2006 the deaths caused by AIDS dropped all the way to only 0.144 deaths per 100 persons. What this shows is that while AIDS are still dangerous you are more likely to last longer now if you have AIDS then when it was first discovered because there is better medical care. If AIDS is left untreated the infected person can expect to live only 1 to 2 years, and that is if they are lucky. However if an infected person is treated using modern drugs and anti-biotics they can live for many years. As of right now there isn’t much information about how long people who are being treated can live because these new treatments have only been going on for about 15 years and so far most people are surviving through the treatments and there haven’t been too many deaths. However with AIDS you can only last as long as your money can last.

Overall throughout time at least 565,927 people in the USA have died of AIDS. In Africa there is an estimated 1.2 million deaths almost every year. When combining the mortality rates of the whole world the numbers surpass 35 million deaths worldwide.

By: Spencer Lazzari
People with HIV usually don't have symptoms or can't tell they have them. People usually get or notice the symptoms as they progress towards AIDS.
Sometimes you can go through periods of being sick and then feel fine. Since HIV/AIDS weakens your immune system, other bugs (Opportunistic Infections) will come and harm the body. You can experience ARS (Acute Retroviral Syndrome) which is the body's natural response to the infection. This will most likely occur between 2-4 weeks.
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a cancer that develops from the cells that line lymph or blood vessels. It usually appears as tumors on the skin or on mucosal surfaces such as inside the mouth. It is a AIDS defining symptom meaning that if you have Kaposi's Sarcoma, then you have AIDS.
Many of the symptoms of HIV/AIDS are similar to symptoms of the flu or respiratory/gastrointestinal infections, and they severity will range from mild to severe. The most common symptoms are flu like symptoms and pneumonia. These are things like nausea, fevers, chills, sore throats, and coughing.
By: Brack Thielmeier
AIDS can be transferred by Sexual Contact, Pregnancy, Childbirth and Breastfeeding, Injection Drug Use, Occupational Exposure, and Blood Transfusion/Organ Transplant
The body fluids that contain HIV are Blood, Semen (cum), Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum), Breast Milk, Vaginal Fluids, Rectal (anal) mucous. HIV that can found, but isn’t enough to infect you are in feces, nasal fluid, saliva, sweat, tears, urine, vomit.
Sexual Contact:
~ When you have anal, oral, or vaginal sex with a partner, you would usually have contact with your partner’s fluids, if your partner has HIV/AIDS, since you made contact with your partner’s fluids they could transfer the virus.
~ It can also transfer through open sores, like herpes or syphilis, and infect your immune system
~ It is easier to give or get the virus if you have a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD).
Pregnancy, Childbirth, or Breastfeeding:
~ Babies in pregnancy are always in contact with there mother’s body fluid making them exposed to the virus if the mother has the virus.
~ After birth, infants can get HIV from drinking infected breast milk
Injection Drug Use:
~ Injection drugs put your body and others’ blood in contact with each other, if you share needles and “works”. Needles or drugs that are contaminated with HIV-infected blood can deliver directly into the blood.
Occupational Exposure:
~ Healthcare workers have the greatest risk for this type of HIV transmission.
~ Healthcare workers usually get infected by contact with infected blood or other fluids through needle sticks or cuts.
~ A few healthcare workers have been infected when body fluids splashed into their eyes, mouth, or into an open sore or cut.
Blood Transfusion/Organ Transplant:
~ With the new screening requirements, this makes both of these forms of HIV transmission very rare in the United States.

Unusual Facts/Distinguishing Features
By: Spencer Lazzari
One huge distinguishing characteristic of AIDS and HIV is that they don't kill people. Opportunistic viruses do. You will most likely die from the common cold or the flu. AIDS and HIV just weaken your immune system.Unlike most diseases this disease has no cure. Money is the only "cure". Modern medicines can help prolong the disease and make you live.
One of the unique features of HIV is that it stores its genetic material as ribonucleic acid (RNA) as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is found in cells. Although the two types of nucleic acids are similar, HIV must convert its genetic material into DNA in order to incorporate its genes into the host cell. To do this, HIV uses a special protein called reverse transcriptase, the which is able to convert RNA into DNA. Reverse transcriptase is the target for many different drugs used to combat HIV, as the enzyme is not found in human cells and is essential for the progression of a HIV infection.
Another unique characteristic of HIV is that it attacks a specific kind of immune cell, known as CD4-positive T-cells. HIV is also different from other viruses in that the process that it uses to duplicate its genetic material is error-prone. HIV undergoes frequent mutations.
Important People Associated
By: Will Liter
Areas of the World Affected
By: Cameron Elder
Approximately 35 million people currently living with HIV and tens of millions of people have died of AIDS-related causes since the beginning of the epidemic.
95% of new infections occur in individuals that reside in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.
HIV primarily affects people in their most productive years (under 25).
The most infected place is Sub Saharan Africa. This is also believed to be the place of origin, although it is still unknown.
Treatments & Cures
By: Cameron Elder
In 1987, a drug called AZT became the first approved treatment for HIV disease. Since then, 31 drugs have been approved to treat people living with HIV/AIDS, and more are under development.
There are currently five different "classes" of HIV drugs.
You take multiple drugs, because there is no cure for HIV and only one drug won't slow it down. It will also make it less likely to mutate inside your body.
There are different classes of ARV, because to treat it successfully, you have to pick the right combination of drugs.
Your doctor takes into account preferences, your state of health, possible side effects, and your medical and psychological history when determining what medications you receive.
It is important to take the prescribed amount of pills at the right time.
Drug treatments help reduce the HIV virus in your body, keep your immune system as healthy as possible and decrease the complications you may develop.
You need to start treatment if you know you have the virus and: You have severe symptoms, your CD4 count is under 500, you're pregnant, you have HIV-related kidney disease, or you're being treated for hepatitis B.
Side effects of treatment include: nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, abnormal heartbeats, shortness of breath, skin rash, weakened bones, or bone death, particularly in the hip joints.
A possible cure for AIDS could be coming in the near future.
Incubation Period/Victim Time Affected
By: Mitchell Bunton-Douglas
History of AIDS/HIV
By: Brack Thielmeier and Seth Frederick
There are multiple celebrities and wealthy people who have been affected by the HIV virus. Some of the most notable people with HIV include: Magic Johnson, Eazy-E, Freddie Mercury, and Jerry Smith. They usually acquire this virus because of their wild lifestyles. Magic Johnson, for example, was in his prime as an athlete. He was coming off one of his best seasons in his NBA career. Then, after a physical before the start of the 1991-1992 NBA season, he announced he had contracted HIV. His wife and children were then tested but were not infected. This was evidence that Magic had probably gotten the virus recently. He has survived HIV for 22 years, mostly because he has tried various types of experimental medication used to treat HIV.

Freddie Mercury was a popular British singer with the band Queen. He sang many popular songs such as “Don't Stop Me Now” and “We are the Champions”. For many years he hid his sexual orientation from the public. In October, 1986 Freddie reportedly got blood tested for HIV in a street clinic. He denied he had the illness or any STD for years until he started to appear very thin and sick. Finally, on November 1991, he released a statement confirming he was HIV positive and had AIDs. He died a little after 24 hours later from bronchial pneumonia brought on by AIDs.
The Incubation Period is the time between when a person is infected with a particular disease, in this case HIV/AIDS, and when the earliest symptoms start to arise. The Incubation Period for HIV/AIDS is anywhere between 2-3 days up until several weeks. A common misconception about the Incubation Period of HIV/AIDS is that it is 10 years. The reason for this is that sometimes The HIV will be dormant in your body for that long but this occurs after the early symptoms have already occurred. This is called Clinical Latency. Even though the HIV is dormant at that time people can still give the disease to others.
Approximately 37 million people today have HIV/AIDS today in the world. These people will be affected by the HIV virus until the day that they die. When a person is diagnosed unless they have the right amount of medical treatments to prevent AIDS, which are, very expensive…they are now looking at inevitable death. Maybe not soon but probably within that decade of their life.
1981 - On June 5, HIV/AIDS was discovered when the U.S. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a report, describing cases of a rare lung infection, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP).
1985 -The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licenses the first commercial blood test, ELISA, to detect antibodies to HIV in the blood. Blood banks begin screening the U.S. blood supply.
1989 -On June 16, the CDC issue the first guidelines for preventing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), an AIDS-related opportunistic infection, and a major cause of illness and death for people living with AIDS.
The number of reported AIDS cases in the United States reaches 100,000.
1994 -AIDS becomes the number one cause of death for all Americans ages 25 to 44.
1995- In June the U.S. Food And Drug Administration approves the first protease inhibitor. This starts a new era of highly active anti-retroval therapy (HAART).
1996- The number of AIDS cases in the United States declines for the first time since the beginning of the epidemic
1999- The World Health Organization announces that AIDS is the 4th biggest killer worldwide and in Africa it is the number 1 killer, and estimate that over 14 million people have died from it.
2004- Congress grants 350 million dollars to the President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief.
2005- The World Health Organization, UNAIDS, the United States government, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria announce they have joined forces to make anti-retroviral drugs more available in developing countries.
2009- The White House and the CDC launch the Act Against AIDS campaign to reduce HIV incidence in the U.S.
2010- The U.S. officially lifts the HIV travel and Immigration ban.
By: Toussaint House
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