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Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies for Students
Transcript of Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies for Students
For 1st-3rd grade Students by
Erica Kocher "Comprehension is a constructive, interactive process involving three factors: the reader, the text, and the context in which the text is read." (Gunning, 2005) What is comprehension? Monitoring is when a reader is able to recognize what they understand and where confusion happens in comprehending a text. Comprehensive Monitoring Questioning is when students develop and attempt to answer questions about the important ideas in the text while reading. Questions play a key part in facilitating comprehension. (Gunning, 2006). If planned carefully, questioning fosters understanding and retention. Question can be used for comprehension, organizing facts, elaborating on text, making connections between text and prior knowledge and monitoring comprehension. Questioning Summarizing "builds on the organizational strategy of determining main ideas and supporting details, improves comprehension and increase retention." (Gunning, 2006)
Summarizing is said to have the most solid research supporting its benefits. The skill of summarizing begins early (when a child describes an event or retells a story) but takes years to develop the skills to successfully summarize. Summarizing Why teach comprehension strategies? Comprehension strategies help readers enhance their understanding, overcome difficulties in comprehending text, and compensate for weak or imperfect knowledge related to the text.
(Institute of Education Sciences, 2010) 1. Comprehensive Monitoring
3. Summarization There are several types of research-based reading strategies.
For the purpose of this presentation, I am going to focus on: References What is a Strategy? Intentional mental actions during reading that improve reading comprehension.
Deliberate efforts by a reader to better understand what is being read. Gunning, T. G. (2005). Creating literacy instruction for all students (5th ed.).
Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. (n.d.).
U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practice_guides/readingcomp_pg_092810.pdf
Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read : An Evidence-
Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction. (2000). Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health.
Rice, M. S. (n.d.). Research Based Reading Comprehension. School Speciality .
Retrieved October 10, 2012, from eps.schoolspecialty.com/downloads/research_papers/mc_research.pdf
Teaching Reading Comprehension, Seven Research Based Strategies for Grades
3-8. (n.d.). Northern Illinois University. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from www.learn.niu.edu/flash/projectreal/Reading_Comprehension.swf. The National Reading Panel (2000) reported that monitoring comprehension helped students through all grade levels because it allowed them to become more aware of their comprehension difficulties. Activities that promote comprehensive monitoring:
Relate the strategy to a traffic sign (e.g., stop sign-stop reading and try to restate in your own words what is happening in the text.
Write different reading comprehension strategies on a card and have students work in pairs to apply the strategy to text they do not understand. Activities that promote Questioning:
Have a question die for students to roll. They then have to answer or formulate a question to go along with the key word (who, what, when, where, how, and why).
Have students work with a partner or in small groups asking and answering questions based on the reading. Activities that promote Summarizing:
Ask a student to describe the text in his or her own words to a partner or small group.
If a student is having difficulty summarizing, ask questions such as "What happened next?" or "Who did that involve?" Bringing it all together... While each strategy has a key role in reading comprehension, they are designed to work alongside each other.
Each student will benefit from different strategies. It is important as educators that we provide students iwth the skills they need to accurately use comprehension strategies in their reading. In order to teach a student how to monitor comprehension, we need to teach the students:
1. How to know themselves as a reader--being able to identify what
their reading abilities are and what their reading preferences are.
2. How to regulate--being able to survey the material, get a sense of the
organization, setting a purpose, and then setting their strategy for
3. How to check for understanding--Identifying what material is
important in the story and where something becomes confusing in
4. How to repair comprehension difficulties--when to take corrective
measures when comprehension is lost.
5. The benefit of lookbacks--being able to look back in the text to clarify
information as it begins to become confusing. In order to teach students questioning techniques, we need to teach them:
1. The different types of questions, such as: essential
questions, organizational questions, telling
questions, sorting questions, etc.
2. What type of questions to ask before, during, and
3. How to use graphic organizers to ask and answer
In order to teach students how to summarize, we need to teach them to:
1. Pull out the main idea
2. Focus on key details
3. Use key words and phrases
4. Break down the larger idea
5. Write down only enough to convey the gist