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Transcript of Audience Theory:
There are three types of audience theory which include:
- The effects model or The hypodermic model
- The Reception theory
- The uses and the Gratifications model
The theory was first suggested by the Frankfurt school of social researchers in the 1920's, from peoples reactions to Nazi Propaganda.
The hypodermic model suggests that media in like a drug and it becomes addictive.
Dominant, Negotiation or Opposition?
An Oppositional Reading of texts would be when the audience members disagree with the message being given. for example if the text is read by a member of the audience who is not originally targeted then they may interpret the text differently for example they may find humor in something that is supposed to be very serious. Again this depends on the audience member's cultural background compared with that of the directors.
Dominant, Negotiation or Opposition?
Dominant readings of text is when the audience agrees or partly agrees with the message being put across by the director. An example of a dominant negotiation of reading text would be a serial killer eg. Norman Bates from Psycho
A dominant portrayal of a serial killer
is usually male, dark hair, dark
We typically perceive males as more
aggressive than females
The effects model or the hypodermic model:
The effects model is a theory of how media can affect society and vice versa. (When people are influenced or inspired by what the see in the media) For a example a negative theory of this is "copycat murders" when a teenager murdered his best friend in 2004, the murder was performed and executed in the style of the game "Manhunt" which was later banned in the UK.
Audience members are believes to be passive and powerless to prevent the influence.
The Reception Theory:
Stuart Hall developed the reception theory, which considered how texts are encoded and understood by audience members.
Its suggests that when text is produced it is encoded with a certain message or meaning. (We as an audience are not passive and we have different levels of understanding depending on the individuals cultural background/life experiences)
In some instances will correctly encode the message and understand what it being said, and in others the audience may reject or incorrectly interpret the message.
The textual analysis of the reception theory usually focuses on either "negotiation" or "opposition" from audience members.
The Effects Model:
A theory used to approach the understanding of mass communication. It places more focus on the consumer or audience member rather that the message being conveyed. There is no clear link between the consumption of violent content in media and violent imitative behavior. It is also clear that the effects model is flawed in the sense that not everyone watches violent films therefore the uses and gratifications model was created.
The Uses and Gratification Model:
The uses and gratifications model is the opposite of the effects model because it suggests that the audience members are active rather that passive. The model also suggests that the audience uses the texts for pleasure or gratification.
The uses and Gratification model continued...