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Chapter 3 Prezi
Transcript of Chapter 3 Prezi
Hydrogen bonding gives water many unique properties:
Resistance to temperature change
Less dense when frozen
Ability to dissolve many other molecules Water Lesson 3.4 Biogeochemical Cycles The Nitrogen Cycle Lesson 3.4 Biogeochemical Cycles The Carbon Cycle Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres There are three major types of plate boundary:
Convergent Tectonic Plates The movement of Earth’s plates has formed the deepest ocean trenches and the highest mountains. Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres Lesson 3.2 Systems in Environmental Science Earth can be divided into spheres that are defined according to their location and function. Spheres of Function Lesson 3.1 Matter and the Environment The separation of water molecules into ions causes solutions to be acidic, basic, or neutral.
The pH scale measures how acidic or basic a solution is.
pH of 7—Neutral: Equal concentrations of H+ and OH-
pH below 7—Acidic: Relatively high concentration of H+
pH above 7—Basic: Relatively high concentration of OH- Acids, Bases, and pH Lesson 3.1 Matter and the Environment Large organic compounds that are essential to life
Proteins: Serve many functions; include enzymes
Nucleic Acids: Direct protein production; include DNA and RNA
Carbohydrates: Provide energy and structure; include sugars, starch, and cellulose
Lipids: Not soluble in water; many functions; include fats, waxes, and hormones Macromolecules Fossilized bones in a Colorado dig. A carbon atom in your body today may have been part of a blade of grass last year, or a dinosaur bone millions of years ago. Lesson 3.4 Biogeochemical Cycles Earth’s atmosphere, seen from space Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres The Biosphere and Atmosphere Biosphere: The part of Earth in which living and nonliving things interact
Atmosphere: Contains the gases that organisms need, such as oxygen; keeps Earth warm enough to support life Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres Plates collide, causing one of two things to happen:
Subduction: One plate slides beneath another.
Mountain-building: Both plates are uplifted. Convergent Plate Boundaries Dust storm, Stratford Texas, 1930s Positive feedback loops can help erosion turn a fertile field to desert in just a few years. Lesson 3.2 Systems in Environmental Science Blood, sea water, plant sap, and metal alloys, such as brass, are all solutions. Lesson 3.1 Matter and the Environment A mixture is a combination of elements, molecules, or compounds that are not bonded chemically.
Solutions are mixtures in which all ingredients are equally distributed.
Mixtures can be solids, liquids, or gases. Solutions Organic compounds include natural gas, petroleum, coal, and gasoline. Lesson 3.1 Matter and the Environment Organic compounds: Consist of covalently bonded carbon atoms and often include other elements, especially hydrogen
Hydrocarbons: Organic compounds, such as petroleum, that contain only hydrogen and carbon
Inorganic compounds: Lack carbon-to-carbon bonds Organic and Inorganic Compounds Lesson 3.1 Matter and the Environment Did You Know? There are 92 elements that occur naturally, and scientists have created about 20 others in labs. Atoms are the basic unit of matter.
Nucleus: Contains protons and neutrons
Electrons: Move around the nucleus
An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances. Atoms and Elements Water’s abundance is a primary reason there is life on Earth. Lesson 3.1 Matter and the Environment CHAPTER Earth’s Environmental Systems 3 Greenlaw Brook, Limestone, Maine Did You Know? If it is depleted, groundwater can take hundreds or even thousands of years to recharge completely. Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres Consists of Earth’s water
Most of Earth’s water (97.5%) is salt water.
Only 0.5% of Earth’s water is unfrozen fresh water usable for drinking or irrigation.
Earth’s available fresh water includes surface water and ground water. The Hydrosphere Transform plate boundary Divergent plate boundary Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres Divergent boundaries: Rising magma pushes plates apart.
Transform boundaries: Plates slip and grind alongside one another. Divergent and Transform Plate Boundaries Volcano lava Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres Crust and mantle are divided into:
Lithosphere: Crust and uppermost mantle; divided into tectonic plates
Asthenosphere: Soft middle mantle; heated by outer core
Lower mantle: Solid rock
Convection currents in the asthenosphere move tectonic plates.
Collisions and separations of the plates result in landforms. Plate Tectonics Rock formation, Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, Utah Rocks and minerals on and below Earth’s surface: Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres Crust: Thin, cool, rocky outer “skin”
Mantle: Very hot and mostly solid
Core: Outer core is molten metal, inner core is solid metal The Geosphere Ionic bonding Covalent bonding Lesson 3.1 Matter and the Environment Atoms combine by bonding:
Covalent bonds: Electrons are shared.
Ionic bonds: Electrons are transferred.
Molecule: Two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds
Compound: Substance composed of atoms of two or more different elements Bonding Talk About It Do you think the distance between the source of the nitrogen and phosphorus and the dead zones themselves makes it difficult to manage this problem? Why or why not? Did You Know? Organisms require several dozen nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon, to survive. Lesson 3.4 Biogeochemical Cycles Matter cycles through the environment.
Matter can be transformed, but cannot be created or destroyed.
Nutrients, matter that organisms require for life process, circulate throughout the environment in biogeochemical cycles. Nutrient Cycling Negative feedback loop Did You Know? Predator-prey cycles are negative feedback loops. If prey populations rise, predator populations can rise in response, causing prey populations to fall. Then predator populations may decline, allowing prey populations to rise again, and so on. Inputs into Earth’s interconnected systems include energy, information, and matter.
Feedback loops regulate systems.
Negative feedback loops: Result in stabilization of a system
Positive feedback loops: Result in a system moving to an extreme Lesson 3.2 Systems in Environmental Science Interacting Systems