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Best Practices in Reading and Writing Instruction

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Thera Tilmon

on 18 August 2013

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Transcript of Best Practices in Reading and Writing Instruction

Best Practices
in Reading & Writing Instruction

Basal Readers-a collection of books in a series which are used for teaching reading.
Benefits of a Basal Reader Program:
It's sequential and systematic
Levels are from Emergent reader to advanced reader.
The program comes with everything a teacher need.-stories, directions, activities, practice materials, and assessment tools.

Web Programs

* Promotes Creativity and Thinking Skills
* Expands Ranges of Experiences
* Develops a love for reading for
* Broadens knowledge of Human
Reading for understanding
Read-aloud informational text
Mini-lessons for support
Guided reading, shared reading, literature circles
Use practice sheets or seat work that support tasks.
Noted for one text for each grade level.
Benefits beginning readers or weak readers.
Focuses on phonemic awareness, decoding, and word attack skills.

Basal Readers
Leveling Systems
Fountas and Pinnell
Uses an alphabetic system (multiple levels per grade level)
Assists guided reading groups
Targets reading behaviors and the teaching to drive instruction
Development Reading Assessment (DRA)
Identifies independent reading level
Uses a numerical score
Measures accuracy, fluency, and comprehension
Best Practices & Recommendations
* Free Reading Time
* Read Aloud
* Making Predictions
* Character Descriptions
* Literature Circles
* Making Connections
Best Practices
* Use magazines for supplement in content area subjects.
* Students can pick an interesting article from newspaper to practice answering the who, what, when, where, why, and how questions.

Leveled Text
Leveled text provides differentiated instruction for guided or independent reading. Students read text that is on the instructional or independent level. Leveled text are on the students target level which allows them to build fluency and comprehension skills.
Best Practices
Organize the classroom library using a color code system coordinating with reading levels
Create reading groups using levels
Encourage buddy reading
Focus on reading skills using leveled text
Newspapers and magazines gets the students engaged with pictures. They are a positive instrument for a textile student.

Newspapers and Magazines
Time for Kids is correlated with Common Core informational standards. It has engaging pictures and online accessibility.

Time for Kids
Scholastic News
Newspaper: Studies Weekly
Studies Weekly is correlated with common core. Students can access from home and has technoglogy components. For example has the computer reads the newspaper it is highligted on the computer. The Newspaper has four choices in health, math, science, social studies, and heritage.
Popular Basal Readers Series
Alice and Jerry
Dick and Jane
Peter and Jane
Spot the DOg
McGuffey Readers
The New England Primer
Fun way to learn for students
Alternative to classroom setting

Smart Tutor Reading Program
Phonics Awareness
Sight Words
Reading Comprehension
Hooked on Phonics
Teaches students how to read
Teaches students how to spell
Reading Kingdom
Motor Skills
Best Practices
Can be used at home
Aid in classroom instruction
Students who need extra help
Make connections with lessons
There is a Nonfiction revolution happening in education today. With shifts from the Common Core standards, there is a growing emphasis on informational or expository text. In order for students to have the background knowledge and reading ability to tackle the complex content area reading in middle school and beyond, non fiction literature must be take a front row seat, right next to fictional literature, in elementary reading programs.

The Common core standards call for a 50/50 split between fiction and nonfiction text at the elementary level. (By high school the recommended split is 30 percent fiction and 70 percent nonfiction.)

Non-Fiction Literature
Ranges of Experiences
Fiction broadens knowledge of self, others, & world
Questioning-- Benefits of Fiction

Basal Readers
Students are encouraged to read a wide variety of texts. The more access students have to a variety of reading materials, the better readers they become.
Teaching Tools
Best Practices
Directed-reading-thinking strategy
QAR Strategy
SQ3R Strategy
Teaching Text Structure
Reciprocal Teaching
Questioning the Author
Frayer Model
graphic organizers

anticipation guides

text frames

Strategy guides

Pattern guides
1. select text
2. select predictive points and prepare comprehension questions for each point.
3. Introduce title and ask for predictions
4. Read aloud, or have student's read, to the first point.
5. At each point, ask a predictive question and a comprehension question.
6. Reflect on changes in predictions.

1. Explain the 4 types of question/answer relationships
2. Model the process using short reading passage
a. read the story and questions to students
b. identify which QARs are evidenced
3. Practice identifying QAR relationships with students.
4. Provide independent practice
5. Gradually increase length and complexity of text.
(Florida Department of Education, 2002)
QAR = Question/Answer Relationships
Expository Text Structures:
- the text describes a topic

signal words: examples, one, two, etc.

- the text uses numerical or chronological order.
signal words: after, at last, before, finally, later. etc
The text compares and contrasts two or more similar events, topics, or objects.
signal words: although, but, however, similar, etc.
the text describes causes and then the ensuing effects
signal words: if, because, since. etc
- the text poses a problem or question and then provides answers.
signal words: question is, dilemma is, one answer is. etc.
1. Introduce the structure and signal words
2. students analyze text structures in a series of text.
3. Students practice writing with each text structure pattern.
"Information reading ability is arguably more important now than it ever has been." (Duke, 2010)
By Angie Myers, Becky Trebisacci, Christma Lee, Keiana Alvis, Stacy Herring, and Thera Tilmon
Click for more info
click for more info
Click for more info,
It has Words to Know which is like a glossary to increase vocabulary. The pictures are colorful. There are questions on back of magazine to build comprehension. Magazines are provided Weekly for a fee per student. It ha as interactive components for home and classroom like videos and games.

Click for an example
Using a pattern guide
1. Select a text
2. Choose the appropriate pattern guide.
3. Give students a copy of the guide and the text.
4. Model for students
5. students work with partners, small groups, or individually.
(Herber, 1978)
Click for examples and steps
Click for an example
Best Practices
Teacher Tools
"Strategy guide: written set of questions
or other activities designed to
assist students in comprehending
information through reading, listening,
or viewing." (Gunning, 2010, pg.419)
consider the title
ask what student's know about it
look at headings,
skim the topic sentences
Look at the illustrations
Set the purpose using questions.
Change the title, headings, subheadings, and illustrations into questions.
Record unfamiliar vocabulary.
Read actively
Find answers as you read
use context clues
generate more questions

Recall answers and information from the text.
Recite the answers aloud or in writing
Answer the major questions (from the title and subheadings)
Review the answers and organize information
Summarize with main ideas using a graphioc organizer, paragraph, or group discussion.
Click for steps
In Reciprocal teaching, students take on the role of the teacher. Teachers model and guide students through group strategies using the four skills or strategies. Once they understand the strategies, they take on the role of teacher.
question generating
Watch the video
click for more info and a video
The Frayer Model is a word categorization strategy
1. Select a concept or vocabulary word
2. Model the activity with an easy word.
3. Complete a four-block Frayer model graphic organizer together.
4. Have students practice the strategy in pairs or in small groups, with vocabulary from the unit of study.
5. Share comparison charts with the class.
Teaching the strategy
Frayer & Klausmeier, 1969
Click here for an example and details.
Akhondi, M., Maleyri, F. A., & Samad, A. A. (2001). How to teach expository text structure to facilitate reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 64(5), 368-372.
Billmeyer, R., & Barton, M. L. (1998). Teaching Reading in the Content Areas. Aurora, Co: MCRel.
Cooperative integrated reading and composition. (2012, June). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report, (), 1-19. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/intervention_reports/wwc_circ_083110.pdf
Frayer, D. A., Frederick, W. C., & Klausmeier, H. J. (1969). A schema for testing the level of concept mastery. Technical Report No.16.
Herber, H. (1978). Teaching Reading in Content Areas (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hill.
Hussey, C., & Peterson, S. (2004). Untangling some knots in K-8 writing instruction. English Quarterly, 26-28.
Landon, B. (2008). Building great sentences: Exploring the writer's craft. Iowa: The Teaching Company.
Manzo, A. (1969). The ReQuest Procedure. Journal of Reading, 11, 123-126.
McKeown, M. G., Beck, I. L., & Worthy, M. J. (1993). Grappling with text ideas: questioning the author. The Reading Teacher, 46, 560-566.
Mitchell, D., Ross, A., & Reissman, R. (1997). Using newspapers and magazines--
the multipurpose teaching tools. English Journal, 86(7), 109-110. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/237279610?accountid=458
Palinesar, S., & Brown, A. L. (1986). Interactive teaching to promote independent learning from text. The Reading Teacher, 39, 501-514.
** Read, Write, Think. (2013). Using Fiction in the Classroom.
Retrieved from www.readwritethink.org
Reading recovery. (2013, July). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report, (), . Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/intervention_reports/wwc_readrecovery_071613.pdf
Reid, J. (2001). Publishing their way to better writing. Principal, 80(3), 43-44.
Scholastic News. (2013). Retrieved from http://classroommagazines.scholastic.com/
Stauffer, R. (1969). Developing reading maturity as a cognitive process. New York: Harper & Row.
Studies Weekly. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.studiesweekly.com/
Time for Kids. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.timeforkids.com/store/subscriptions
The Florida Center for Reading Research. (2007). Student Center Activities: Comprehension. 1-60.
Uusen, A. (2009). Changing teachers' attitude towards writing, teaching of wrting and assessment of writing. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 10, 100108.
Zheng, S., & Dai, W. (2012). Studies and suggestions on prewriting activities. Higher Education Studies, 2(1), 79-87. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1059521570?accountid=458

ReQuest involves a sort passage of text, small groups and teacher modeling.
1. Choose a text at students instructional level
2. Students read the 1st paragraph
3. Teacher asks questions and students answers without looking at text.
4. Students check the text to find any answers they missed
5. Students read 2nd paragraph
6. Students ask questions of other students in the group
7. Students answer without checking and then answer with checking
8. Continue until the text is complete. (students take turns formulating questions)
Click for steps
Questioning the Author is a strategy that gets students thinking and engaged with the text in a meaningful way.
1. Explain that sometimes when we read we have to figure out what the author is trying to say.
2. Read a passage of text
3. Ask students questions such as
"What is the author trying to tell you?"
"Why is the author trying to tell you that?"
"Is that expressed clearly?"
4. As students uncover problems or confusions in the text, have them revise ideas in to clearer language by asking questions such as:
"How would you want to say instead?"
"How could the author have expressed the ideas more clearly?"

Click for more
At first, teacher should add though-provoking statements and ask students to agree or disagree.
Encourage student discussion of statements, sharing background knowledge and supporting opinions.
After reading the passage, students should return to the guide and circle agree or disagree again. Encourage conversation and students should compare their opinions. Follow-up with a writing assignment. (Herber, 1978)
Click for definition
(The Florida Center for Reading Research, 2007)
Click for examples
stauffer, 1969
Billmeyer & Barton, 1998
Akhondi, Maleyri & Samad, 2001
Manzo, 1969
Palinesar & Brown, 1986
McKeown, Beck & Worthy, 1993
Teaching the 5 stages of the writing process
Writing is a complex means of communication that includes many components. For readers to understand the message, certain rules apply. Learning those rules and mastering writing is a process that develops with the student.
Writers must
1. Know how to write down words and letters
2. Know how to compose sentences and paragraphs
3. Know how to engage the reader and gain their attention.
4. Know how to choose the words to use to express their ideas.
and so much more....
(Uusen, 2009)
The writing process is fluid. Each stage is important to the finished product and may need to be revisited. Writers move back and forth between
stages. The movement
between stages is
continuous, not
necessarily sequential.
Bubble Map in the Classroom
A Bubble map is a graphic organizer to help with prewriting step to answer the who, what, when, where, why, and how questions only using words not complete sentences.
Collaborative strategy for Writing
The collaborative strategy approach is a student centered approach that combines writing instruction and text models. (Gunning, 2010)
Writer's Craft
"Being able to talk to supportive peers about a current draft greatly facilitates the quality of the finished product. " (Hussey & Peterson, 2004, pg.26)
Writer's craft is a technique in which writer's explore the work of others authors as a model. "Great writing begins-and ends- with the sentence." In a writers craft activity students explore and analyze sentences and then build their own great sentences. Moving beyond simple grammer issues, writers craft helps students see how they can use prose, voice, and language to convey a message. Study how other writers craft their work, helps students develop into great writers themselves. (Landon, 2008)
* The only bad revising is no revising
* Take the point of view of the reader
* Model--focusing on one or two key items
* Compare revised copy to original copy
* Introduce revising strategies in steps
* Use revision check-list (provided)
Research and classroom practices have similar concepts. Educators must model key revising strategies one skill at a time.
One strategy seen in the classroom not mentioned in the research is the use of peer revision suggestions. This builds team building skills at the same time as revising skills.
Research shows a great motto when teaching revising skills: the only bad revising is no revising. This
should be incorporated into every classroom.
Cognitive Strategy in Writing
Talk-writes can involve all areas of the writing process. They involve the articulation of the thinking and creative process. Students share their thinking with peers and/or the teacher until they can develop into internal thinking-writers.
When students are lost in a "vacuum of their own thoughts" they sometimes lose motivation. (Hussey & Peterson)
When used with collaborative writing strategy, students first talk about what they read and identify the writing structure, purpose, and key features of a genre. This information serves as a model as they produce their writing.
For a Detailed lesson on writer's craft, click here
Watch this video for instructions on how to use books in teaching writing.
Questions for Editing
Is everything spelled correctly?
Is the punctuation used correctly?
Do parts of the writing need to be added to or removed?
Is there space between words?
Are there capital letter at the beginning of the sentence?
Watch this video to see how pointing out the rule of 3 in reading helps students in the writing process.
** Revision suggestions by peers
** Model revising strategies
** Step away--then look at again
** Go back--reread & revise
** Assess tone, audience, grammar, spelling
Pre-writing activities generate ideas which encourage a free flow of thoughts. Learning the pre-writing process helps students discover what they want to say and how to say it on paper. (Zheng & Dai, 2012, p.79). Pre-writing provides students the opportunity to connect previous knowledge with new research and understanding.
-"To see again"
-Assume the role of the reader
_Ask yourself questions
1.) Brainstorm
Strategy- students working in small groups help each other to formulate ideas through a collaborative brainstorming session.
2.) Semantic Mapping
Students use a graphic organizer like a bubble map to get ideas written down on paper.
3.) Genre Modeling
The teacher shows students examples of quality work in the specific genre.
4.) Outline of paper
Students generates ideas and develops them into an outline to organize the flow of the paper.
All these steps help the
pre-writing step go smoothly.
Steps to Prewriting
(Zehng & Dai, 2010)
"Research shows that when students know that their work will be published, both the quantity and the quality of their writing improves" (Reid, 2001).
What does it mean?
Editing is the process of making corrections in a written piece (Gunning, 2010). When teaching the editing stage of the writing process one element should be focused on.
Publish online using digital story creators like

Editing Strategies
Display child's work in hallway and class library for all to read.
Publish online using digital story creators like
* http://storybird.com/
* http://zooburst.com/
Read the draft aloud as the piece is written
Circle misspelled words
Peer editing
Read the piece aloud to a partner
"Listening to your own writing and listening to others read is the best single editing technique (Gunning, 2010)."
Use different colors for each editing mark
Editing Checklist
Editing marks can be used to make corrections within the paper. These symbols are universal which makes editing consistent from each grade level.
Editing Marks
CSW focuses on using text structures to improve writing and features conspicuous strategies. (Gunning 2010) Teachers should use modeling and think-aloud with this strategy.
Publish books and poetry on nice paper and display for everyone in school to see.
Publishing in the classroom
Use blogs to publish students work and learn to make positive comments about peers work.
Video of examples of publishing
Examples of Think Sheets
Students need to generate rough drafts in order to create a quality piece of work. Constantly writing and re-writing the work will help students become better writers.
Rough Draft
Use Pre-Writing Aids
Using pre-writing aids will assist the student in the composing process. For example, if the student used a bubble map during pre-writing, the student should refer back to it during composing. This will help the student keep his or her thoughts together.
Practicing writing with students will show students what is expected of them. Before having students work on a large piece of writing, the teacher needs to scaffold small chunks of writing to get the students used to the composing process and become more comfortable with it.
Once a student has completed the pre-writing process and has an idea of what to write about, the student is ready to start writing his or her work.

Watch this video for an example
4 phases in the CSW
Analyze Text
Guiding Students
Opportunities for Individual writing
Discuss the topic, purpose of the text, questions you expect the text to answer, the audience, your text structure, and words to identify the text structure.
Model for the students answer the questions who, what, when , where, and why about their writing piece..
Incorporate think sheets-(scaffold that prompts student's to use writing strategies they have been previously taught.) (Gunning 2010)
Providing Opportunities for Independent Writing-as the student's become proficient writer's phase out the think sheets.o
Technology Interventions that motivate and engage
* Increases learning
* Improves self-esteem
* Student can demonstrate
knowledge in new ways
* Sense of accomplishment
and pride
Laptops & IPads
- Wiki's: Group projects
- Blogging: During reading-character
- Create websites: Display student
-Prezi: Presentations
Smart boards
- Interactive learning
Books on Tape
- Assist struggling readers

Electronic Portfolios as an Assessment Tool
Uses and Implementation of Electronic Portfolios
Stores information on formative and summative assessments
Shows evidence of an individual's growth
Relates student work to the standards taught
Evidence of learning
Promotes learner-centered classroom
Evaluates the educational program
Encourages parent, student, teacher reflection
Students can evaluate data and set goals
Electronic Portfolios
Electronic portfolios can be used as a central location to store student artifacts. Teachers can input data for individual students and use the data to make instructional decisions. Electronic portfolios can identify whether students have met academic benchmarks or may need intervention.
Electronic Portfolio as an Instructional Tool
Uses of portfolios:
Builds media literacy
Students learn how to categorize information.
Students master the technological aspect of the 21st Century learner.
Helps students develop presentation skills.
Implementation of portfolios:
Collection of Senior project work.
Summative course project.
Collaborative tool for group assignments.
Used to complete college applications or used to showcase employment skills.
Examples of Technology to use with Assessment.
It Has 2 modes : Wheel of fortune and Quiz mode
It Can be used as an end of unit review, to assess and build prior knowledge, it encourages team work
and it's both motivating and engaging
Software can benefit in many ways:
Keep track of student 's results and progress,
Student's have access to skill drills & practice.
Assessment program software such as:
Dibels Next
The Class tool
RTI assessment software
Assistive Technology
Some types of technology to aid student's with disabilities are as follows:
EZ Eyes Keyboard, The MegaBee, ALD-assistive listening device
Makes learning more engaging.
Increases participation
Multi-Sensory Learning
COllaborative problem solving
VIrtual Field Trips
Student's are more successful
Keeps students on task
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition
3 components -
Story related activities
Direct Instruction in comprehension
Integrated language art/writing
Reading Recovery
A pull-out tutoring program for thirty minutes daily for 12-20 weeks (Reading recover, 2013).

Increase in comprehension
Increases alphabetics, reading fluency, comprehension and genral reading achievement (Reading recovery, 2013).
Students work in pairs reading stories, predict how they will end, summarizing stories, practice decoding, spelling, and vocabulary. (Cooperative integrated reading and composition, 2012)
In groups of four work together to understand stories read as a group and write about it. (Cooperative integrated reading and composition, 2012)
Types of Interventions
Steps to Implementation
Screen students at the beginning and middle of the year to identify individual needs.
1. Screen
2. Monitor
Progress monitor all students, specifically those at risk
Tier 1
Provide differentiated reading instruction for all students
3. Intervene
Students at or above benchmarks receive tier 1 interventions
Students below the benchmark receive tier 2 interventions
Tier 2
Tier 3
Intensive, systematic instruction in small groups, 3-5 times a week for 20-40 minutes. Monitor regularly. Students making progress continue. Students not making progress move to tier 3.
Intensive, daily, one-to-one instruction using a mix of instructional interventions. Progress monitoring is critical. If students do not progress with this intensive intervention, they may be recommended for special education services.
Students who do not show progress after a reasonable time of tier 2 intervention move to tier 3
With the introduction of Response to Intervention (RTI) initiatives, identifying and responding to struggling readers has become a priority in many schools. "RTI is a comprehensive early detection and prevention strategy that identifies struggling students and assists them before they fall behind."
system 44
Read 180
System 44, developed by Scholastic, is a foundational reading program for students from 3rd thru 12th grade. The program combines technology and small group instruction for tier 2 support in foundational skills such as phonics, comprehension, and writing.
REad 180 is a comprehensive software program for students in grades fourth through twelfth. Developed by Scholastic, Read 180 provides an intensive and rigorous instruction model that focuses on comprehension and whole word vocabulary. Read 180 can be used as a tier 2 or tier 3 intervention.
Click on the video for a visit to a differentiated classroom
Click on the video to see a small group tier-2 intervention happening!
Click on the video to see Tier 3 intervention happening!
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