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MBG 202 Molecular Biology: Chromosomes

Chromosomes, Chromatin, Chromatid, Histone, Nucleosome, Haploid, Diploid
by

Ferhat Ozturk

on 4 March 2015

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Transcript of MBG 202 Molecular Biology: Chromosomes

Chromosomes:
Structure and Function

Chromosomes:
How DNA is stored in the nucleus
Only seen during mitosis/meiosis
Humans have 46 chromosomes
Chromatin:
relaxed, unwound DNA --> all the pieces are mixed together like a plate of spaghetti
DNA is usually found in chromatin form in the cell
How does chromatin get wound up into a chromosome?
1.) Histones:
balls of protein
- the double
helix is wrapped around like a ball of yarn.
2.) Nucleosomes:
8 Histones + DNA are wrapped around each other
3.) Super Coiled:
Nucleosomes wrap around each other
-Like a telephone wire
Diploid:
Organism or cell containing
paired
chromosomes
Homologous Chromosomes:
Chromosomes that pair together, which are the same size and have genes in the same location.
(Not identical - different base pairs)
Each homologous chromosome from the pair is inherited from mom or dad
Chromosomes are numbered in pairs #1 - #23
Chromatid:
One strand of the chromosome
Contains the DNA
One chromatid replicates to create 2 sister chromatids
Haploid:
Organism or cell with
single
, unpaired chromosome
Haploid Examples:
Usually smaller asexual organisms
Bacteria
Sex cells / Gametes: sperm and eggs
Human chromosomes:
Numbered in order from pair #1 to pair #23, decreasing in size
Autosomes:
all
non-sex chromosomes. #1-#22
Sex Chromosomes:
pair #23 - determine male or female and sexual characteristics
Centromere:
links the sister chromatids
Don't have a matching paired chromosome
Males: XY

Gametes:
sex cells, haploid
Sperm and eggs
Somatic Cells:
body cells, diploid
Centromere
Chromosome
Identical Sister Chromatids
Chromatid
DNA Replication
Nucleus
Nucleus
From mom
From dad
Ex: Where gene for eye color is
Females: XX
MBG 202: Molecular Biology
by Ferhat Ozturk, Ph.D.
Full transcript