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Unit 5 Meeting Individual Care and Support Needs

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Karen Dodd

on 8 February 2017

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Transcript of Unit 5 Meeting Individual Care and Support Needs

Quick check your knowledge
Explain the terms - equality, diversity, discrimination
What are the protected characteristics?
What are the 6 C's?
Outline the attachment theory?
What is emotional resilience?
Who is involved in the Triangle of Care?
Explain empathy

Ethical issues and approaches
Ethics is about respecting the basic values and principles that underpin practice. It also involves facing moral questions.

Should there be women only carriages on the trains?

Should we be able to choose the sex of our baby?

Should the death penalty be returned for murderers?

Should people have the right to choose when they die?

Is it okay for the NHS to spend hundreds of thousands of pounds to prolong a terminally ill patients life?

Ethical theories
Attachment
Bowlby's theory - children with stable upbringings are likely to be resilient and autonomous having confidence to make decisions on their own
Person-centred theory
Founded by Carl Rogers - Humanist



In this lesson all learners will be able to

Describe terms including resilience, autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, justice

Identify four theories on empathy

Identify two ethical issues involved when providing care and support

Some learners will be able to

Complete a Check Your Knowledge Quiz

Learners will then consider conflict and conflict resolution and apply this to a case study


Unit 5 Meeting Individual Care and Support Needs
Empathy
Empathy is, at its simplest, awareness of the feelings and emotions of other people. It is a key element of Emotional Intelligence, the link between self and others, because it is how we as individuals understand what others are experiencing as if we were feeling it ourselves.
Empathy theories are relatively recent in ethical philosophy and health and social care have borrowed these theories and applied these to practice. Practitioners such as Carl Rogers and Gerald Egan have focused on the importance of empathy and as unconditional positive regard when building relationships with service users in counseling.

In looking at studies on service user perceptions of non caring nurses much of the behaviour identified shows a lack of empathy.
Try this
People with learning disabilities or mental health issues are sometimes unable to ensure that they are treated equally
Health and social care professionals need to be aware of the principles, values and skills which underpin practice

Look at this extract and identify the issues surrounding equality and diversity and preventing discrimination

How might empathy theories along with personal skills and attributes successfully promote anti-discriminatory practice
There are many theories on telling right from wrong and giving guidelines on how to live and act ethically

Consequentialism - Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), Peter Singer (born 1946)

A correct moral response is related to the outcome, or consequences, of the act, not its intentions or motives.
So in Health and Social Care one should consider the consequences of spending money, that could go elsewhere, on a terminally ill patient? Which is most important?

Deontology - Immanel Kant (1724-1804), W D Ross (1877 - 1971)

This theory says that you should stick to your obligations and duties to a person or society. Focuses on intentions not consequences
The rules about spending money on treatment should be the same for everyone

Principlism - Tom L Beauchamp, James F Childress

Use the four key ethical principles

Autonomy - Respect the decision making capabilities of people, enabling them to make independent reasoned and informed choices
Benficence - Balances the benefits of treatment against the risks and costs. Acts in a way to benefit the patient and promotes well-being
Non-maleficence - avoiding causing harm (having a smear test is beneficial and does not cause harm
Justice - being morally right and fair - bring a range of benefits and doing what the law says

Virtue ethics - Plato and Aristotle

focuses on moral character or virtues
in health and social care this would mean explaining different treatements to the patient and
find out what they want
Ability to overcome setbacks
or disappointment without giving up
To bounce back after difficulties
Autonomy is the
freedom to make
decisions without
having to ask
permission
The Triangle of Care
Carers included: A guide to Best Practice in Mental Health Care in England

Including Dementia, this approach leads to the best possible care, promoting safety, supporting recovery and sustaining well being.
The carer is the key partner in the service users care
Reference: https://www.skillsyouneed.com/ips/empathy.html#ixzz4Xc8k05JU
Non-Caring and Uncaring Nurses

• Hurried /too efficient
• Not thoughtful
• Just doing a job
• Rough
• Belittle patients
• Not responding
• Not paying attention
• Treat patients as objects
• See patients as problems
(Riemen 1986)




Uncaring/ Incompetent

• Depersonalize patients
• Increase patients vulnerability / dependence
• Neglect patients
• Detached
• Non communicative
• Negative communication
• Indifferent
• Fail to meet care responsibilities
(Hallsdorstottir 1999)
Focuses on the importance of empathy and uses unconditional positive regard when building relationships with service users in counselling
Unconditional positive regard is where parents, significant others (and the humanist therapist) accepts and loves the person for what he or she is. Positive regard is not withdrawn if the person does something wrong or makes a mistake.
SELF ESTEEM - What we think about ourselves
SELF IMAGE - How we see ourselves
IDEAL SELF - The person we would like to be
J
ohannes Volkelt
You can only really appreciate an object (art of music) if you and the object became one. You not only see or hear it but also feel it.
Robert Vischer
He invented the term empathy. This is when
you imagine yourself as being one. You feel the emotion of the artist you imbue the piece with the right emotions
To fill or inspire
Max Scheler
We should look at objects
differently. Don't just give the facts
but describe it as beautiful, ugly
Martin Hoffman
based on social and emotional development
especially empathy and its bearing on how we develop morally
four stages of empathy
Global empathy - baby hears another cry they cry too
Egocentric empathy - a child will offer help to another child in a manner that they would like an offer of help. (A teddy to a crying child)
Empathy for another feelings emerges around 3 years old when children begin to role play and start to realise that other people's feelings may differ from their own
Empathy for another's life condition emerges as a teenager when they begin to empathise with the poor, the sick or refugees
Ethics - telling right
from wrong
morals - views beliefs and principles about what is right or wrong
Lesson Outcomes
Managing Conflict
Conflict usually occurs because of disagreements over treatment, concern about the cost or quality of care or the behaviour of staff

People may be more critical or their emotions less controlled because of concerns for their relative/friend

How do you resolve conflict?
In groups with flipchart paper write Do's and Don't in two columns and then write down as many things under each column as you can


Conflicts of interest


This is a situation where the concerns or aims of two or more different parties are incompatible

Often ethical dilemmas will not have a correct answer
Potential issues could include
Prescribing the pill to a girl
under 16 years of age
Involve social services because
parents are taking drugs
Where to allocate resources
When to pass information to other
agencies
Withhold treatment to patients nearing
end of life (act of ommission)
How to deal with this
You need to consider
What are the risks to the individual and others
Professional and legal responsibilities
Policies and procedures of organisation
Do I have all the facts
Balancing services and resources
Minimising risk when promoting individual choice
Sharing information and managing confidentiality
Try this

Look Out! Bedside vision check for falls prevention
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