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Pro vs Anti Natalist Policies
Transcript of Pro vs Anti Natalist Policies
In 1958, the "Great Leap Forward" began, whose objective was rapid industrilization. Therfore, the government was concerned that low birth rates would cause low production rates.
By 1962, there was a catastrophic famine, due to neglect of agriculture in the industrilization period and high population.
Estimated 20 million people died during the famine.
Because of this, in 1964, a new phase of birth control was intiated.
The Cultural Revolution in 1966 to 1971 undermind the previous birth control program and resulted in the birth rate peak of 45 per 1000.
A third family planning campaign was launched in the early 1970s
In 1979 the very controversial 'One Child Act was Proposed China Projection 1950-2005 http://www.econ.upf.edu/docs/papers/downloads/818.pdf "Guarantees a minimum level of income independently of employment status."
An eligible mother with 2 children are entitled to a monthly allowance of 870 Euros if she has no other income.
"A single mother with two children who started working at the minimum wage before the reform would make around 13,000 euros in the first year (in 2003 euros), which would raise her above the income guaranteed by the API, thus she would not receive any allowance. After the reform, she would receive an
extra 7,160 euros of API during that first year of work, thus increasing her income by 55 percent. "
Labor earnings are taxed at 100%
"All families with at least 2 children under 18 years of age in France are eligible for a universal family benefit, which varies with number and age of the children. In 2003, a family with 2 children under 11 received 111 euros a month. Families with at least 3 children over 3 years of age were also eligible for a meanstested “income supplement” (145 euros a month in 2003)" Recent Past This caused the a rise in the number of single mothers in porportion to the rest of the families in france from 9.6 % in 1990 to 13.8 % in 2002 Longer paternity, maternity leave with near full pay ranging from 20 weeks with one child to 40 or more with three or more children.
Higher child benefits
Improved tax allowance until youngest child reaches 18
pension fund for mothers and houswives.
30% reduction on public transportation for 3 child families In 2006 France overtook Ireland to become the highest fertility nation in the European Union.
The 830900 babies born in 2006 was the highest since 1981.
France is close to a replacement rate of 2.1 per woman. That means for every woman there will be 2 children to replace them in the future.
In 2009 a population Data Sheet put France's total fertility rate at 2.0.
this is large compared to the 1.3 in Germany, 1.9 in the UK, 1.3 in Italy and 1.5 in Spain
The average fertility rate is highest with the immigrant population, although the average with babies born in France is 1.8. EFFECTS China is the third largest countries.
Most fertile land is found in the east and south which have the highest population densities.
In the aftermath of the Chinese revolution in 1949, population growth was encounraged for economic, military and strategic reasons.
Sterilization and abortion were banned and families were given a benifit payment for every child they had.
By 1954 China's population reached 600 million which put pressure on food and other resources. China As A Pro Natalist Country China has a Population in excess of 1.3 billion.
Operates the worlds most severe family programme. Shift from Pro Natalism to Anti Natalism You can see that the 'One Child Policy' has an impact on the male to female ratio here. In 2009 there were about 119 boys to 100 girls. Also, there is a bit of propoganda with slogans like "Shao Sheng, Kuai Fu", "Fewer births, Quickly Richer"