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Science 1

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victoria varnedoe

on 28 January 2016

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Transcript of Science 1

Introduction
Most were out of their homes at church
Many deaths occurred by way of collapsing buildings, tsunami, and fires
Europe’s intellectual outlook was heavily influenced by the quake

Science 1
Measurments
The magnitude of the Lisbon earthquake was between 8.5-9.0. It was considered Great.
The intensity was MM 8:Heavily damaging. It destroyed ¾ of the city of Lisbon and ¼ of the population.
Science 2
Lisbon had suffered four earthquakes in the three previous centuries (de Boer & Sanders)
Lima had experienced several shocks earlier in the year, causing Voltaire to speculate that the origin of the earthquake was from the Southwest (de Boer & Sanders)

Human Toll 2
Destroyed all of Lisbon and damaged Portugal, Morocco and southwestern Spain.
As many as 10,000 dead initially and two or three times that amount injured.
Lisbon lost most of its people and most of its cultural heritage, libraries, charts of voyages and artwork were all destroyed.
Earthquake caused Voltaire and his followers to question optimism and if God was the cause of such catastrophe’s.
Jesuit clergy strongly dissaproved rebuilding the city and encouraged everyone to spend time praying for forgiveness.
Lisbon was previously a “maritime great power” and was a known supplier of spices.
Voltaire penned a famous poem that went against optimism and accepting God’s hand in disasters after this quake.
Conclusion
On November 1, 1775 a magnitude 8.5-9.0 earthquake created by the faulting of the seafloor near the mid-atlantic plate boundaries destroyed all of Lisbon and damaged Portugal, Morocco and southwestern Spain.As many as 10,000 died initially and two or three times that amount were injured.“The earthquake cost Portugal between c.32 and 48% of its
Gross Domestic Product”
Human Toll 1
The Effects
-In between 10,000 and 30,000 people died as a result of the
earthquake, tsunami, fire and diseases
-14,000 houses out of 250,000 original houses were left inhabitable
-“The earthquake cost Portugal between c.32 and 48% of its
Gross Domestic Product, probably making it financially the
greatest natural catastrophe to have affected western
Europe”
Lisbon Portugal 1755
The Recovery

Reconstruction started within 16 weeks of the earthquake

Brazil contributed an enormous contribution of gold and diamonds

“Pombal exacted a 4% tax on manufacturing and merchandising”

In between 20,000 and 50,000 people worked on the city over 13
years

Churches were built at a lower height and there was more of an
emphasis on commerce.
Pictures
Background
Physical Features
The earthquake created a tsunami that produced 20 ft. waves.
Waves traveled westward to Martinique in the Caribbean Sea a distance of 3790 miles in 10 hours.
Damage traveled 685 miles to the East.
Process
Researchers have said that is was created by the faulting of the seafloor along the tectonic plate boundaries of the mid-Atlantic.

Julie Connor, Victoria Varnedoe, Zachary Cable, Carly Schaelling, Nicole Parker, Tyler Burbidge

From Rev. Charles Davy (Modern History Sourcebook)
“…the whole city waving backwards and forwards, like the sea when the wind first begins to rise; that the agitation of the earth was so great even under the river, that it threw up his large anchor from the mooring, which swam, as he termed it, on the surface of the water: that immediately upon this extraordinary concussion, the river rose at once near twenty feet, and in a moment subsided; at which instant he saw the quay, with the whole concourse of people upon it, sink down, and at the same time every one of the boats and vessels that were near it was drawn into the cavity, which he supposed instantly closed upon them, inasmuch as not the least sign of a wreck was ever seen afterwards.”

Libson before and after
St. Roch Tower
The Opera house
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwi_hfbSrMnKAhUE7WMKHZCnCPMQjB0IBg&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3D_TrTZYfMYhI&psig=AFQjCNEuEK--i9Pv04E5ysPRACIXzieeQw&ust=1453961283017737

Occurred on November 1, 1775 (All Saints Day)
The disaster began at 10:16am
Magnitude 8.7
Caused fires and tsunami

https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjz_q_1q8nKAhWDKWMKHfmTApkQjB0IBg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lookandlearn.com%2Fblog%2F3390%2Flisbon-hit-by-an-earthquake%2F&psig=AFQjCNEuEK--i9Pv04E5ysPRACIXzieeQw&ust=1453961283017737

Location of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake
Bibliography

http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1755lisbonquake.asp

http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/33/8/685/F2.expansion.html

https://app.box.com/embed/preview/8pue15xhbetlj92d02rfq9q79cqep4ox?theme=dark
Kozak, Jan T. "Historical Depictions of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake." N.p., 12 Nov. 1998. Web. 26 Jan. 2016. <http://nisee.berkeley.edu/lisbon/>.


Chester, David K. "The Effects of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami on the Algarve Region." N.p., 27 Feb. 2008. Web. 26 Jan. 2016.
<http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.426.4370&rep=rep1&type=pdf>.


http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=larp_faculty_pubs


Mullin, John R. "The Reconstruction of Lisbon following the Earthquake of 1755: A Study in Despotic Planning." N.p., 1992. Web. 26 Jan. 2016. <http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=larp_faculty_pubs>.
History of Earthquakes
Effects
Natural occurrences were now believed to be due to God’s anger at the residents of the area (de Boer & Sanders)
An excerpt from Voltaire’s poem Candide reflects such feeling:
But how conceive a God, the source of love
Who on man lavished blessings from above
Then would the race with various plagues confound
Can mortals penetrate His views profound?
Effects cont.
The economy of Lisbon was destroyed with the tsunami in the harbor, and the once beautiful city was burned to the ground as the result of unsafe fire. Libraries and churches burned with homes.
Minister Pombal decided to “Bury the dead and feed the living,” and then rebuild the city. He was met with much resistance by the church, who demanded the city be cleansed spiritually and that God’s wishes of destruction remain as a reminder to the people. As a result, Lisbon never regained its former grandeur. (de Boer & Sanders)
De Boer, J. Z., & Sanders, D. T. (n.d.). The Far Reaching Effects of Seismic Disruptions. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from https://app.box.com/embed/preview/8pue15xhbetlj92d02rfq9q79cqep4ox?theme=dark
Figure 1: Lisbon 1755. Museu da Cidade. Jan Kozak Collection. http://nisee.berkeley.edu/elibrary/Image/KZ128.
Figure 2: Strobërle, João Glama. Allegory of the 1755 Earthquake. https://www.flickr.com/photos/biblarte/4067538689/in/set-72157622592053327.
Full transcript