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Untitled Prezi

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Eliana Ossa

on 10 February 2014

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Fronting

A cleft sentence means splitting one clause into two. The information which would be given in one clause is divided in two parts, each with its own verb. We do this to put emphasis and to focus on an specific part of a sentence or what we want to say.
FRONTING
When part of a sentence is moved from its normal position to the beginning of the sentence, we call this fronting. The part of the sentence moved to the front might be the object or some other compliment, an adverbial or even the main verb itself.



USES
Fronting is common with:

Adverbials
(place and movement)
On the table
stood a vase of flowers
(A vase of flowers stood on the table)

There is / there are
Next to the window
was
a bookcase
(There was a bookcase next to the window)

Participles
Gone
were the designer sunglasses
(The designer sunglasses were gone)

IT CLEFT SENTENCES
it + be (+ not and/or adverb) + emphasized word/phrase + that (who) clause
Wh-cleft sentences:
WH- Clause + BE + EMPHASISED WORD / PHRASE
Rules for fronting with inversion

T
he subject and verb change position in the following situations:
(a) When the main verb is 'be'.
(b) When the main verb is a verb of place: sit, stand, live, lie etc,
or movement: go, walk, run, swim, fly etc.

The subject and verb do not normally change position when:
(a) the verb is transitive (i.e. it takes an object).
(b) when the subject is a pronoun (he, she, it, they etc.).
(c) when a transitive verb is followed by an adverb of manner (slowly, happily etc.)
(d) with verbs other than those of place and movement.
(e) with continuous tenses.

Fronting with adverbials of place and movement


Inversion (changing the position of the subject and verb) is common with fronting.

The garage

was
on the right
of the house.
On the right
of the house
was
the garage.
Note: The subject 'garage' and verb 'was' change position.




Fronting with negative adverbs of frequency
: never, rarely etc


This is quite common and can express surprise, disapproval etc.

I

have

never
seen such careless work.
Never

have

I
seen such careless work.
Note: The subject and verb change position.

I

have

rarely
eaten such a delicious meal.
Rarely

have

I
eaten such a delicious meal.
Note: The subject and verb change position.





Fronting with question-word clauses


We don't know
when
he left.
When
he left we don't know.
Note: The subject and verb don't change position.

I can't understand
why
she didn't tell us.
Why
she didn't tell us I cannot understand.

We have know idea
where
she has gone.
Where
she has gone we have no idea.

Nobody knows
how
he escaped.
How
he escaped nobody knows

http://es.scribd.com/doc/59667368/U-11-Grammar-Inversion-and-Fronting



The robbers ran out of the bank.
Out of the bank ran the robbers.
Note:
The subject and verb change position. 'Run' is a verb of movement and it is intransitive here.




i

have

never
seen such a mess

never
have
i

seen such a mess
Cleft sentences

• She writes all her novels on a typewriter.

What she does is (to)
write all her novels on a type writer.


There are two types of cleft sentences:

It-clefts emphasize the object of the clause. We can join the words that we want to focus on to the relative clause with that, who or when.

• My brother bought his new car from our next-door neighbour last Saturday.

It was my brother who
bought his new car from our neighbour last Saturday.

It was last Saturday when
my brother bought his new car from our neighbour.


Wh-clefts emphasis the verb of the clause, we use to be to link the two clauses. If the verb and the original sentence is in the present or past simple, we form the Wh-cleft with do/did. Here we want to give emphasis to the whole sentence, rather than a particular clause.

• The police interviewed all the witnesses to the accident first.

What
the police did first
was
(to) interview all the witnesses to the accident.


• You should invest all your money in telecoms companies.

What
you should do
is
(to) invest all your money in telecoms companies.

What
you should invest all your money in
is
telecoms companies.


It is sometimes very effective to use all instead of what in a cleft structure if you want to focus on one particular thing and nothing else:

• I want a new coat for Christmas.
• All I want for Christmas is a new coat.
• A new coat is all I want for Christmas.


Other cleft sentences


Cleft structures include the reason why, the thing that, the person/people who, the place where, the day when.

• I've come to discuss my future with you.

The reason why
I've come
is
to discuss my future with you.

• Your generosity impresses more than anything else.

The thing that
impresses me more than anything else
is
your generosity.

• The jewels are hidden under the floor at 23 Robin Hood Road, Epping.

The place where
the jewels are hidden
is
under the floor at 23 Robin Hood Road, Epping.
• Under the floor at 23 Robin Hood Road
is

the place where
the jewels are hidden.
Full transcript