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Quantum Theory

Orbitals and electron configuration
by

Nancy Cope

on 10 January 2014

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Transcript of Quantum Theory

Electrons
Electrons are found in the area around the nucleus of the atom
every electron has an energy level and an orbital
there are four different types of orbitals
Electron energy levels
...can only hold 2 electrons max
...is sphere shaped
...is the last orbital occupied by the first two columns of the periodic table
the s orbital...
3 peanut shaped orbitals
one on the x axis
one on the y axis
one on the z axis
The p orbitals
five orbitals each with different orientation
each orbital can hold 2 electrons
10 electrons can occupy the d orbitals
the d orbitals
there are seven f orbitals
each can hold two electrons
the two rows beneath the periodic table occupy the f orbitals
the f orbitals
the negative charge of the electron is attracted to the positive charge of the proton
s
p
d
f

orbitals are areas around the atoms with a high probability of finding an electron
Electrons fill the energy levels according to three rules
Aufbau Principle
Hund's Rule
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Electrons fill the lowest energy level first
Aufbau's Principle
The periodic table shows the
order in which the orbitals get filled
electrons will fill
orbitals singly before pairing
Hund's Rule
everyone wants their own bedroom
Pauli Exclusion Principle
a maximum of two electrons
can occupy an orbital and these
two electrons must have opposite spins
Correct
Incorrect
description of the location of electrons in an atom
Electron Configuration
tells us how many electrons are in each orbital and each energy level
Energy level is written as a number
orbital is written as the letter
number of electrons is written as a superscript
a pictoral representation of the electrons in orbitals
Orbital Notation
orbitals are drawn as lines or boxes
electrons are drawn as arrows
energy levels are labeled below the orbitals
a shortened version of the electron configuration
Noble Gas Notation
the inner electrons are replaced with the closest noble gas; the remaining electrons are written in electron configuration
more helpful for bigger atoms
Where do the electrons go?
we can draw different pictures to explain where the electrons in an atom are located
All atoms have all energy levels and orbitals
There are three types of pictures
Electron Configuration
Orbital Notation
Noble Gas Notation
How do energy levels and electrons go together?
Write the electron configuration for sodium.
Try These!
Write the orbital notation for sulfur.
Write the noble gas notation for titanium.
the electrons found in the outer most energy level
Valence Electrons
these electrons are responsible for bonding
these are the electrons responsible for ions
these electrons can be gained or lost by atoms
the number of valence electrons corresponds to the column of the periodic table the element is in if you do not count the d block
How many valence electrons does nitrogen have?
each peanut can hold 2 electrons
...is the last orbitals occupied by the right six columns of the periodic table
Full transcript