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Surayyah Abdullah

on 22 October 2012

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Transcript of EDU 3653 ABORTION

Main question in the issue of abortion:

Is the foetus a persons?

If it is a person, is it right to kill a person who is innocent?

Is it a crime to kill a person who is innocent? If it is confirmed in the early period of pregnancy that a foetus suffers from a defect that can't be treated and that will cause great suffering to the child, a number of scholars would say that it is permissible to abort, provided that the pregnancy is less than 120 days old.
Abortion is regarded as a lesser evil in this case because:

the mother is the 'originator' of the foetus
the mother's life is well-established
the mother has with duties and responsibilities
the mother is part of a family
allowing the mother to die would also kill the foetus in most cases Traditional Hinduism and many modern Hindus also see abortion as a breach of the duty to produce children in order to continue the family and produce new members of society.

Many Hindus regard the production of offspring as a 'public duty', not simply an 'individual expression of personal choice' (see Lipner, "The classical Hindu view on abortion and the moral status of the unborn" 1989). If we follow this argument and accept that a foetus has a right to live, then we face part two of the problem:

abortion is wrong unless it serves some right of the mother that is as morally important as the foetus' right to life

the right to life outweighs another person's right to control her own body

therefore abortion is wrong unless it serves some greater right of the mother than the right to control her own body

the only such right is the mother's right to live

therefore abortion is wrong unless it is to save the life of the mother The two sides

On one side are those who call themselves 'pro-life'. They say that intentionally caused abortion is always wrong (although it may on very rare occasions be the best thing to do).

On the other side are those who call themselves 'pro-choice' or 'supporters of abortion rights', and who regard intentional abortion as acceptable in some circumstances Latest statistics on worldwide abortions published by the World Health Organization (WHO).

According to WHO, every year in the world an estimated 40-50 million women faced with an unplanned pregnancy decide to have an abortion. This corresponds to approximately 125,000 abortions per day.

In the USA, where nearly half of pregnancies are unintended, and four in 10 of these are terminated by abortion , there are over 3,000 abortions per day. Twenty-two percent of all pregnancies in the USA (excluding miscarriages) end in abortion. Abortion globally Semua atau hampir semua penguguran harus tidak sah berdasarkan hujah:

Kewujudan dan hak moral manusia(termasuk organisma) untuk hidup bermula pada atau semasa konsepsi –fertilisasi

Penguguran yang di buat adalah pembunuhan dgn sengaja dan secara tidak adil – melanggar hak janin untuk hidup

Undang-undang harus menghalang pelanggaran hak untuk hidup yang tidak adil Hujah deontological –hak janin untuk hidup Sanctity of life extends to all humans

Thus, the right to life of the fetus would overrule the woman’s right to choose abortion since abortion would be equivalent to murder

The right to life is an inalienable right that logically supersedes all other rights Sanctity of life argument (Prolife) The examples are not relevant – a foetus is innocent and did not choose to come into existence, whilst an intruder is guilty of freely choosing to climb into someone else’s property

Thompson also fails to take emotions into account

She talks of a baby as if it were a possession or object Some criticisms of Thompson’s analogies A man is kidnapped and wired up to a famous violinist in a hospital in order to save the violinist. He wakes up and is given the choice to staying attached to the violinist for nine months and saving him, or leaving the hospital and letting the violinist die.

HOSPITALISATION = PREGNANCY Arguments supporting the mother’s right to abort foetus (women’s bodily rights) Different views about what constitutes “personhood’’

This results in several different ideas about the stage where a foetus becomes a “person’ Konsep ‘Personhood’ Personhood

Important in determining perspective on abortion
When is a person considered a person (insan)
Aborting a foetus after it is considered a person is considered an act of murder. The moral issue in abortion:
Concept of ‘personhood’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wOR1wUqvJS4 A 12 year old girl’s view on abortion Abortion is generally forbidden in Sikhism, as it interferes in the creative work of God - who created everything and is present in every being.

Most Sikhs accept that life begins at conception (one reference is found on page 74 of the Guru Granth Sahib).

So if conception has taken place, it would be a sin to destroy life and hence deliberate miscarriage or abortion is forbidden. Sikhism Abortion is not permissible after the foetus has a soul Islam forbids the termination of a pregnancy after soul or 'Ruh' is given to the foetus.

Many scholars believe that life begins at conception, and that all scholars believe that an embryo deserves respect and protection at all stages of the pregnancy.
Abortion and the soul The Islamic view is based on the very high priority the faith gives to the sanctity of life. The Qur'an states:

Whosoever has spared the life of a soul, it is as though he has spared the life of all people. Whosoever has killed a soul, it is as though he has murdered all of mankind.
Qur'an 5:32

Most Muslim scholars would say that a foetus in the womb is recognised and protected by Islam as a human life. Muslims regard abortion as wrong and haram (forbidden), but many accept that it may be permitted in certain cases.

All schools of Muslim law accept that abortion is permitted if continuing the pregnancy would put the mother's life in real danger. This is the only reason accepted for abortion after 120 days of the pregnancy. Islam The soul and the matter which form the foetus are considered by many Hindus to be joined together from conception.

According to the doctrine of reincarnation a foetus is not developing into a person, but is a person from a very early stage. It contains a reborn soul and should be treated appropriately.
The status of the foetus in Hinduism In practice, however, abortion is practiced in Hindu culture in India, because the religious ban on abortion is sometimes overruled by the cultural preference for sons. This can lead to abortion to prevent the birth of girl babies, which is called 'female foeticide one text compares abortion to the killing of a priest
another text considers abortion a worse sin than killing one's parents
another text says that a woman who aborts her child will lose her caste The Roman Catholic view is that abortion is 'gravely contrary to the moral law‘

It says that deliberately causing an abortion is a grave moral wrong.

It bases this doctrine on natural law and on the written word of God

Human life begins when the woman's egg is fertilised by a male sperm

Each new life that begins at this point is not a potential human being but a human being with potential. Christianity All the religions have taken strong positions on abortion; they believe that the issue encompasses profound issues of life and death, right and wrong, human relationships and the nature of society, that make it a major religious concern. Religious and abortion the pregnant woman has the right to life - where not aborting the foetus would put the mother's life or health in danger, she has the moral right to abort the foetus Arguments for abortion 'Potential human beings' don't have rights

only 'actual' human beings have rights Arguments for abortion It is not always wrong to end the life of an innocent person

there are many cases where we have to choose which of two innocent people will live and which will die: Arguments for abortion The foetus is not necessarily a 'person' with the right to live Arguments for abortion People who don't believe abortion is always morally wrong use arguments like this:

The foetus is not necessarily a 'person' with the right to live

It is not always wrong to end the life of an innocent person

'Potential human beings' don't have rights

The pregnant woman has moral rights too

the pregnant woman has the right to life Arguments for abortion Increasing tolerance of killing is wrong

allowing abortion is legalising killing

legalising killing reduces people's respect for life

reducing society's respect for life is a bad thing - it may lead to euthanasia, genocide and increased murder rates

therefore abortion is always wrong Some general arguments against abortion 4 Killing beings with 'a future like ours' is wrong

it is wrong to kill beings that would have a future like ours if they lived

in most cases the foetus, if not aborted, would have a future like ours

it is wrong to kill such a foetus

therefore abortion is usually wrong Some general arguments against abortion 2 A foetus is a person

A foetus has a unique genetic code
A foetus is a unique individual Some general arguments against abortion 1 what do we mean by a 'human being'?

when, if ever, does a human foetus become a 'human being'?
Hidden issues The sort of decisions that pregnant women and their doctors have to face:

Does the foetus have a right to be carried in the woman's womb until it's ready to be born?

Under what circumstances, if ever, can we take an 'innocent' human life?

Is any other right more important than the right to life - for example, a woman's right to decide what to do with her own body?

If the woman's life is in danger because of the pregnancy, how do we decide whose rights should prevail? The non-religious argument about abortion covers several issues, such as:

what gives a being the right to life?

is a foetus a human being?

is a foetus the sort of being that has a right to life?

is a foetus a separate being from its mother?

if the foetus has a right to life, does that right take priority over the mother's right to control her own body?
The issues But those two questions don't end the debate.

If we conclude that abortion is not morally wrong, that doesn't mean that it's right to have an abortion; we need to ask whether having an abortion is the best thing (or least bad thing) to do in each particular case.

If we conclude that abortion is morally wrong, that doesn't mean that it's always impermissible to have an abortion; we need to ask whether having an abortion is less wrong than the alternatives
The secondary questions The moral debate about abortion deals with two separate questions:

Is abortion morally wrong?
Should abortion be legal or illegal?
The primary questions The abortion debate deals with the rights and wrongs of deliberately ending a pregnancy before normal childbirth, killing the foetus in the process. The abortion debate Moral issues about abortion involve those that are deliberate and intentional (sengaja)

The fundamental issues is whether abortion is morally wrong or not. Abortion The last period of growth, weeks 36 to 38. Infant period From weeks 9 to 36 , the embryo begins fetal development. All organs systems are becoming viable - able to interact and eventually sustain life independent of the mother. Fetal period From fertilization to the eight week of pregnancy, the 23 Carnegie stages of human development pinpoint changes in this extraordinary period - ending when all internal and external structures necessary for fetal growth are present. Embryo period Minggu ke 12 – ke 16 Story of the foetus
Bebola sel menempel pada dinding rahim

Bermulanya perkembangan sistem organ (otak, tulang, jantung dan tuib penghadaman) dan ciri-ciri struktur seperti lengan dan kaki

Gelombang otak dapat dikesan.Panjang janin mencecah 3sm Story of the foetus
Pada hari pertama, ovum ditembusi sperma. Hasil penggabungan dinamakan zigot (sel mengandungi 46 kromosom)

Pada hari kedua hingga ketiga, zigot bergerak melalui tuib falapian dan menambah pembahagian sel

Pada hari ketujuh hingga ke 10, zigot sampai ke rahim dan dinamakan blastosis Story of the foetus
In Malaysia, abortion is legal for very liberal reasons since 1989 when the Penal Code was amended.

The only pre-requisite for an abortion is that the doctor needs to hold the opinion that the continued pregnancy would be injurious to the women’s physical and mental health.

Statistics have revealed that rape cases in the country have tripled in the past 10 years.

One baby is abandoned every ten days and that there are 2,500 illegitimate births each month on average. Majority of these are Muslim babies. Abortion in Malaysia Intentional termination of pregnancy

The decision to terminate the pregnancy before the foetus is viable is also a decision to kill the foetus or let it die.
(White, 2009) A definition Abortion is the premature/ deliberate expulsion of the foetus from the womb. ABORTION http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/abortion/ References Hujah mengatakan penguguran harus sah dalam semua atau hampir semua kes

Wanita mempunyai hak untuk mengawal apa yang berlaku dalam dan terhadap badan mereka

Penguguran hanya menjalankan hak wanita

Undang-undang tidak harus mengadili tindakan adil melibatkan hak untuk mengawal badan sendiri Hujah deontological –hak wanita untuk menggugurkan kandungan Even after determining at which stage a foetus is considered a person, there is still the issue of rights

What are the rights of the foetus?

What are rights of the mother? The issue of right to live The violinist (foetus) has the right to life.However this right is not greater than the person’s (the kidnapped man) right to freedom. Arguments supporting the mother’s
rights to abort foetus Employs an analogy about a famous violinist to support mother’s right to determine whether to abort foetus. JJ Thompson: A defence of abortion, 1971(Prochoice) Jonathan Glover
Secara logik sukar untuk menentukan bila seorang insan menjadi seorang insan

When does a cake become a cake?
When does a person become a person? Konsep ‘Personhood’ What is the moral status of the foetus?

At what stage does the foetus have the same status or dignity to be considered as having the same moral status as the community of persons or at what stage does the foetus have the same rights as other persons? Some issues related to abortion A lot of debates revolve around life or the right to life and the foetus right of to life

When does life begin?

When does the foetus gets the status of a person?

At what level is the status of a person given to a foetus where its status can be equated to a planned murder? Key debates about abortion There are many disagreements about when a pregnancy begins, what is considered a fetus and other such issues

There are also questions about methods of avoiding pregnancy and the function of these methods in causing abortions. Some disagreements Hindu medical ethics stem from the principle of ahimsa - of non-violence.

When considering abortion, the Hindu way is to choose the action that will do least harm to all involved: the mother and father, the foetus and society.

Hinduism is therefore generally opposed to abortion except where it is necessary to save the mother's life Hinduism
Traditional Buddhism rejects abortion because it involves the deliberate destroying of a life

Of course, abortion, from a Buddhist viewpoint, is an act of killing and is negative, generally speaking. But it depends on the circumstances.

If the unborn child will be retarded or if the birth will create serious problems for the parent, these are cases where there can be an exception. I think abortion should be approved or disapproved according to each circumstance. Buddhism Causing pain is wrong

it is wrong to cause pain and suffering

a foetus is sufficiently developed to feel pain by 18 weeks

therefore it is wrong to carry out an abortion after 18 weeks of pregnancy Some general arguments against abortion 3 Killing people is wrong

killing innocent human beings is wrong

human life begins at conception

therefore the foetus is an innocent human being

therefore killing the foetus is wrong

therefore abortion is always wrong Some general arguments against abortion 1 The most common form of the case for banning abortion goes like this:

deliberately killing innocent human beings is wrong

a foetus is an innocent human being

abortion is the deliberate killing of a foetus

therefore abortion is the deliberate killing of an innocent human being

therefore, abortion is wrong
The case against abortion Pro life

Pro choice

Moderate views Three views on the morality of abortion (White, 2009) Terminating the pregnancy before the baby is due to be born (24 weeks)

Death of a foetus –either purposely or naturally

Natural deaths are because the foetus is not well or died during conception (70% of abortion occur naturally) What is involved in aborting foetus? Minggu ke 40 When induced abortion is performed by qualified persons with correct techniques and sanitary standards are satisfied, abortion is a relatively safe surgical procedure.8 The overwhelming majority of deaths and disabilities caused by pregnancies with abortive outcome arise from the complications of unsafe abortion

Unsafe abortion is defined as an abortion taking place outside of health facilities (or any other place recognized by law) and/or provided by an unskilled person. Current health concerns EDU 3653 ABORTION http://awlmalaysia.blogspot.com/2011/09/advocating-for-srhr-malaysian.html Legally http://www.worldometers.info/abortions/ http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/bod_abortions.pdf Minggu 1 Minggu ke 2 Minggu ke 2 –ke 8 Minggu ke 6 – ke 8 Quickening ynag membolehkan wanita hamil merasai pergerakan janin. Panjang janin mencapai 16sm. Kelahiran Milestones: week 1 - fertilization, cleavage (first cell division), blastocyst. implantaion; 2.5 weeks - primitive streak, neural groove, somites appear; 3.5 weeks - heart tube forms; 4 weeks - body cavity forms; 5 weeks -eyes, ears, nostrils, mouth begin; 6 weeks - pituitary, intestines begin; 7 weeks - kidneys produce urine; 8 weeks - head erect and rounded; limbs recognizable Milestones: the eyes move from the sides of the head to the front; the bridge of the nose develops along with other forms of cartilage; hairs appear on the eyebrows and lips followed by fine lanugo hair covering the entire body; the umbilical cord herniates and this "gut" enters the body cavity; external genitals identify the sexes; nails form; the mouth opens and the tongue appears; breathing motion begins as does sucking; the fetus reaches half of its full length at birth; later fetus develops scalp hair replacing lanugo hair. Milestones: foetus puts on body fat (white fat) insulating internal organs and stretching wrinkled skin into a smooth surgace; brain size increases; lungs produce surfactant and are capable of sustaining the breathing of oxygen; ends with birth of infant. Source:http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/abortion/philosophical/introduction.shtml Source:http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/abortion/philosophical/introduction.shtml Source:http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/abortion/philosophical/introduction.shtml Source:http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/abortion/philosophical/introduction.shtml Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/abortion/philosophical/introduction.shtml a collection of human cells does not have the right to live just because it is of the human species it has reached a particular stage of development that makes it a moral 'person'
it possesses certain properties that make it a moral 'person' otherwise amputating a limb would be murder a collection of human cells only has the right to live by virtue of certain facts these are either: conjoined twins, where the operation to separate them may cause one twin to die
mountaineering, when one person can only save their own life by cutting the rope supporting a fallen colleague
the case of a woman who had to abandon one of her children to save the other The pregnant woman has moral rights too under some circumstances these may override the foetus's right to live these moral rights include: the right to ownership of her own body
the right to decide her own future
the right to take decisions without moral or legal intervention by others ...Most Western and Japanese Buddhists come away believing in the permissibility of abortion, while many other Buddhists believe abortion to be murder. James Hughes Dalai Lama, New York Times, 28/11/1993 Classical Hindu texts are strongly opposed to abortion: Islam allows abortion to save the life of the mother because it sees this as the 'lesser of two evils' and there is a general principle in Sharia (Muslim law) of choosing the lesser of two evils. The violinist has no right over the person’s body, and therefore the person is morally justified in reversing his hospitalisation by leaving – just as a mother has the right to terminate her pregnancy. Explain the moral issue with abortion

Explain the different perspectives on the abortion

Clarify the moral arguments for and against abortion

State moral stand on abortion

Justify stand on abortion based on moral theory /religious ethics Learning outcomes
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