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Education in Haiti
Transcript of Education in Haiti
Education in Haiti vs. America
Learning in the Community
Learning in the Family
The Educational System
• Primary education
-Although not mandatory
-preschool is available (3 to 5)
• Elementary education
-Consists of 3 cycles of 3 years each (called fundamental education)
-(6 to 11)
• Secondary education
-(12 to 17/18)
• Higher education
-Public universities require an annual fee of 3,000 gourdes ($75)
Learning in Peer Groups
Rural And Urban Background
Government and Education
Culture: What are the schools Celebrating?
Students with Special Needs
Technology in the Classrooms
• First public school was established in 1635
• Ranked 36th in world
• Difficult to find teaching jobs
• Teachers $39,000 and $75,000 a year
• 49,484,181 children enrolled in primary schools
• Children must be enrolled in school
• 88% of students attend public school, 9% attend private schools, 3% are home schooled
• Only 21.3% attend higher education
• 1 in 4 children in America don’t know how to read
• Around 1860 was when they introduced schools in Haiti
•Lowest education rates in western hemisphere
• Shortage of supplies and qualifies teachers
• Teachers get paid $72 a month
• 15,200 primary schools
• Only 67% enroll in primary school
• Secondary schools enroll only 20%
• Haiti’s literacy rate is 52.9%
• Haitian leaders attempt to improve education as a national goal
• In large building
• Multiple boards and technology
• 25 students in classroom
• Multiple supplies
• 1 or 2 teachers per classroom in elementary school
• In middle school and high school, different teachers teach different subjects
• Classrooms in Haiti are often made out of makeshift tents and shelters
• Many students
• Few supplies
• 1 teacher (sometimes alternates)
• In private schools students have their own desk and chair
• In public schools students have their own chair but share desks or tables or have their own
• Poor areas: students sit on benches or floor (small tables are put in the classroom for multiple students to use at once)
• Haitian curriculum involves many subjects to
be learned in great detail
• Reading, writing, and arithmetic are important
• Memorization and recitation is popular
• Difficult to learn how to write since there is little/ no supplies in classroom
• Grading, tests, and teachers are difficult and strict
• Primary education focus on socialization skills
• In general, a student learns basic arithmetic and sometimes rudimentary algebra in mathematics,
• English proficiency
• “No child left behind”
• Curriculum in public education is determined by individual school districts
• The broad topic of Social Studies may include key events, documents, understandings, and concepts in American history, and geography
• Science classes include physics and chemistry, biology, ecology, and physiology
•Basic subjects are taught in elementary school, and students often remain in one classroom throughout the school day, except for physical education, library, music, and art classes
-Generally for children from about 2 to 5 years old
• Elementary School
-First year is kindergarten (age 5)
-Usually grades 1-5, sometimes 6
• Middle school/ Junior High School
-Often grades 6 to 8
• High school is grades 9 to 12 (ages 14-18).
-Then you graduate after you finish 12th grade, and you're officially done with mandatory schooling
• College or University
- Private or public
- Although the Haitian constitution states that primary education is free and compulsory, enrollment is only about 65%.
-most schools have minimum government support
-more than 80% of primary school are privately managed by churches, communities, and for-profit operators all with little government oversight
-churches, and non profit organizations take over many governmental functions. (e.g. education, sanitation.)
-schools are technically free, however most families have trouble affording the uniforms, books, and school supplies required.
-many teachers are not qualified.
-Puts laws into effect that ensure educational success and equality. (e.g. IDEA NCLB)
-power is reserved to the states
-Each state has a state board of education
-State boards of education are bodies of citizens appointed by the legislature or governor, or popularly elected, depending on the state. The state board is responsible for approving statewide educational policies and determining budget priorities.
-School is mandatory, and free for students until they move on to post-secondary schooling.
-books are provided to students for free.
-the government requires teachers be qualified and have a college degree in order to teach students.
-By age 7, most rural children engage in serious work
-Children are responsible for getting water and firewood and helping cook and clean around the house
-Parents and guardians are disciplinarians and children are whipped occasionally
-Children need to be respectful to adults and are not aloud to talk or stare at adults when they are being disciplined.
-Most rural parents try their hardest to send their children to school, because public education is not free
- 80% of schools in Haiti are private
- Only men can work most jobs, but women are open to working in health care, in which nursing is exclusively a female occupation
-Parents who can afford to send their child to school do and if they excel they are exempted from their work demands
-By age 7, 33 million children are already enrolled in school
-Children are receiving an education and participating in after school activities
-Most children do not have certain jobs, unless the family sets a chores list
-Parents and guardians do discipline their children some by hitting, but every states differs to what exactly is aloud
-Parents have different ways of disciplining their children, but there is no set way of doing so
-49,484,181 children in the Untied States are enrolled in school
- Public education is free
- 25% of schools are private
-Men and Women do not have certain jobs they are aloud work. They are able to work any job
-All children have an opportunity to get a free public education
-The education system is based on the French system
- In the public schools the language of instruction is Creole and French
-The academic year begins in October and ends in July.
- In 2011, $8.8 million was spent on education in Haiti
-The Haitian government has never placed emphasis on education, especially for children living in rural areas
-The school system in Haiti is in shambles from the 2010 earthquake. The earthquake caused major damage or destroyed the majority of schools.
-The area affected most by the earthquake was home to 50% of Haiti’s students
- This disaster has brought much attention to the educational crisis in Haiti and is giving opportunity to worldwide organizations to get involved and help education in Haiti
- The education system is based on the United States system
-In the public schools the language of instruction is English
- The academic year differs in each state
-In 2011, $105 billion was spent on education in the United States
- The government provides much of the activity on issues of nationwide importance of education. Public schools are ran by governmental authority
- The United States believes education is important
- The United States raised $1.4 billion for Haiti after the earthquake in 2010
most schools in haiti and almost all families have limited access to technology.
-There are many organizations that are trying to help students in Haiti get caught up on modern technology in order to help them further their education.
-78% of people in Haiti are poor
- 37.9% of the population is unable to read or write
- In Haiti, if the children go to school they are to return home after and do work, there are no after school activities
- Men are responsible for taking care of livestock and gardens
- Women are responsible for cooking, cleaning, washing clothes by hand, and gardening.
- Age 7 is when children start engaging in work in their community
-Gross national income is 660 U.S. dollars
-Age structure in Haiti:
0-14 years: 38.1%
15-64 years: 58.5%
65 years and over: 3.4%
Children in American have great opportunities in the classrooms when it comes to technology. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent getting computers into U.S. classrooms, and teachers and students around the country are using technology in new ways.
-Children are being provided laptops, and tablets that have begun to replace textbooks.
-Students can receive practice in working with programs such as Word, Excel, and Power point which can help them succeed in higher education settings.
-These students are given the means to do research and create presentations that can take their education to the next level.
-teachers have a responsibility to use this technology responsibly. It should not replace the teacher, just help the students excel.
"The stress inflicted on me by society is compounded by the stress I am already experiencing on a daily basis at home in dealing with my child's behavior" - Haitian parent of a child with a disability
-In Haiti, students with disabilities are thought to be dangerous.
-disability is seen as a punishment if someone if their family had done something wrong.
-Haitian Christians believe that it happens when someone goes against God.
-Most Haitians are uneasy around children with disabilities.
-Many parents keep their children from the public view.
-Many of these parents are upset by the idea of knowing that their expectations for their child's education will not be met, so they don't bother looking for options.
American students with disabilities are given great opportunities to succeed. Laws such as the IDEA protect students with disabilities.
-They are promised a Free and Appropriate Public Education in the Least Restrictive Environment which allows them to be apart of the general education classroom.
-Instead of being pushed away, the education system gives them an opportunity to succeed by providing them services that they need in order to do so.
-parents and teachers are strong advocates for these students, ensuring that their needs are met.
-14.5% of people in the United States are poor
- 14% of Americans read "below basic" literacy level
-Many students in the U.S. participate in after school activities like gymnastics, sports teams, or volunteer at organizations...these things help build social skills
- Men and Women do not have certain responsibilities they have to do, every household in the U.S. runs differently
-Gross national income is 62,857 U.S. dollars
-Age structure is the United States:
0-14 years: 19.4%
15-24 years: 13.7%
25-54 years: 39.9%
55-64 years: 12.6%
65 years and over: 14.5%
National Holidays in Haiti:
-Death of Toussaint L'Ouerture
-Haitian Flag Day
-Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary
-Death of Jean-Jacques Dessalines
-Discovery of Haiti
Haitians also celebrate Carnival, leading up to Ash Wednesday where the streets fill with parties. Music is played and many bands create floats that move through the city.
Rara is another celebration that takes place before Easter. Also includes music and dancing in the streets
Schools celebrate many holidays by playing music, singing, and dancing and creating pictures that express their appreciation. Much like American schools these children celebrate with arts and crafts and holiday parties.
American schools most commonly celebrate Thanksgiving, Halloween, Christmas/Haunaka.
-Schools celebrate by throwing parties
-and putting on plays
Celebrating holidays in the classroom gives the students an opportunity to take an academic break and see how school can be fun.
-Teachers can put together activities that are fun and educational
- Classrooms are not separated by grade
- Classes may have all different ages in the room at once
- There is no certain teaching strategies that teachers must follow
- Group work is only done on occasion
- Older students work with younger students to help the teacher out
- Outside of school children socialize by playing games near their houses
- Classrooms are separated by grade
- Classes are made up of children that are in the same age range
- There are certain teaching strategies teachers use in the classroom
-Group work is encouraged and benefits children
-Outside of school children hang out with their friends, do homework together, or participate in after school activities.
Haitian Children as American Students:
How can teachers help?
-Children who come to American from Haiti may have a difficult time transitioning
-According to the Herrera article these students will experience acculturation, which "is the type of culture change that occurs when an encultured individual comes into proximity with a new or different culture".
-May have trouble assimilating into the new culture and surroundings.
-Culture Shock: may become irritable, angry, depressed.
-teachers may not understand culture, parents view on education- may think parents are uninterested, but in their culture parents never question the teacher.
-children may feel isolated in classroom, they may stick out
(e.g clothes, language)
Teachers can ..
-learn more about the Haitian culture
-teach other students about Haitian culture
-have good communication with the family (have translator in meetings)
-explore the acculturation stressors this student may have.
-Herrera Article: teachers themselves must enculturate themselves in their own culture in order to understand the child and help them.
Haiti's primary language is French-Creole. (A combination of Haitian Creole and French)
All Haitian's speak Haitian Creole while few speak French, yet French remains primary language of instruction in Haitian classrooms.
In most schools, children copy French lessons by rote on the chalkboard, understanding little.
Students must work hard because they do not speak French at home.
There are 322 languages spoken in the U.S.
English the most common language spoken at home, Spanish second.
Students in U.S. classrooms are linguistically diverse.
Students are primarily taught English in schools.
Foreign languages required or optional in most high schools, 70% take Spanish.
10% of students in U.S. public schools are English as a Second Language learners.
Less than 1% of pubic school teachers are ESL instructors.
Religion is a part of Haitian every day life and culture.
The two main religions are Roman Catholicism and Voudou, or Voodoo, a mixture of African animism (belief in spirits and nature) and Christianity.
Many Haitians practice both these religions at the same time.
15, 200 primary schools, of which 90% are non-public and funded by religious institutions (by the United States, Canada, and France).
Among Americans 18-29, 1 in 4 say they are not affiliated with any particular religion.
Christianity (which includes Catholicism) greatest majority in the U.S. followed by Islam, Hinduism, then non-religious.
Religion is no longer part of the curriculum in U.S. schools, "one nation under God" made pledge of allegiance optional for students.
Majority of schools in Haiti damaged or destroyed still from 2010 earthquake.
Literacy rates 55% for both sexes.
Drop out rates are very high. In rural areas= 80%
Education is highly valued but majority of Haitians do not have access to it in rural areas.
Although school is free, most cannot afford the supplemental fees, school uniforms and supplies.
70% of Haitians live in rural areas, so most children in Haiti do not receive a formal education.
Only small minority educated beyond primary school.
Drop out rate= 50 % in urban areas.
Lower poverty rate in urban areas, more families can afford costs to keep children in school.
The current national high school graduation rate is 80%.
In 2013, about 1 in 5 did not graduate high school with their peers.
Studies find that urban students drop out more frequently.
Drop out rate in cities= 13%
Schools more crowded
More problems causing students to drop out: higher poverty rate.
Rural drop out rate less than urban= 11%
Fewer number of "drop out factories" than urban areas.
There are 583 fewer "drop out factories" and 1 million fewer students attending them in 2011 than in 2002.