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Lesson 5

Introduction to Cells

Lori Richardson

on 28 September 2014

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Transcript of Lesson 5

Today we know that living cells are not
empty chambers, but contain a
huge array of working parts, each
with its own function.
Under the microscope, cork seemed to be made of thousands of tiny, empty chambers that Hooke called “cells”.
Chapter 7
Cell Structure and Function
In 1665, Englishman Robert Hooke used an early compound microscope to look at a nonliving thin slice of cork, a plant material.
In Holland, Anton van Leeuwenhoek examined pond water and other things, including a sample taken from a human mouth. He drew the organisms he saw in the mouth—which today we call bacteria.
In 1855, German physician Rudolf Virchow concluded that new cells could be produced only from the division of existing cells.
In 1838, German botanist Matthias Schleiden concluded that all plants are made of cells.
The next year, German biologist Theodor Schwann stated that all animals were made of cells.
All living things are made up of cells.
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
New cells are produced from existing cells.
Cell Theory
Microscopes and Staining
Light microscopes can be used to see cells and cell structures as small as 1 millionth of a meter. To study something smaller than that, scientists need to use electron microscopes.
Light Microscopes
Electron microscopes use beams of electrons, not light, that are focused by magnetic fields.

Electron microscopes offer much higher resolution than light microscopes.

There are two major types of electron microscopes: transmission and scanning.
Electron Microscopes
Scanning electron microscopes produce three-dimensional images of the specimen’s surface.
Scanning Electron Microscope
Transmission electron microscopes make it possible to explore cell structures and large protein molecules.
Transmission Electron Microscopes
Two Types of Cells
Cells that do not enclose DNA in nuclei
Cells that enclose their DNA in nuclei
What Do All Cells Have In Common?
In your group, come up with ONE thing that all cells have in common. We will combine these ideas to form a class Cell Theory and then compare it to the actual Cell Theory.
Important Scientists!
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