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China (1450 - Present)

History of china through the years. Including politics and diplomcy, economy and society, and culture and intellectual advancements.
by

ashley miranda

on 13 December 2011

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Transcript of China (1450 - Present)

Double click anywhere & add an idea One major event in cultural history in China was: The Cultural Revolution Starting in October of 1966 and ending in October 1979 the Cultural Revolution was a period where learning was looked at as a crime and was mostly centered around teachers professors and intelectuals. It was said that in middle schools students were allowed to order their teachers to cultivate cabbage. In high schools the teachers wold wear dunce caps and recite over and over again saying "I am a cow demon" in front of a class of mocking students. The whole point of this revolution was to ultimately wipe out China's past and create an entirely new society.The supporters, Red Guards, destroyed paintings, vases, pottery, calligraphy, embroidery, statues, books, and any other precious works of art they could get their hands on. They would also destroy temples and historical buildings. Between 1970 and 1974 the Red Guard was stationed by Gubeikou and tore down the Great Wall to build their army barracks. In Tibet they turned thousand year old monestaries into factories and pigsties. Libraries were looted, museums were pratically bombed, and even monks were forced to wear blue suits instead of the reddish brown robes they commonly wore and were forced to work on farms. During the Cultural Revoltuion it was repored that there were a few hundred "counter-revolutions" where people were being killed publicly. Teen Red Guards had locked up and tortured at least seven teachers at one of the best schools in China. It was also reported that Red Guards and party workers in one area of Gaungxi ate the flesh of more than 100 victims they had tortured to death. 1450-1461
After the Zhengtong Emperor was released from his capture by the Mongols, he seizes power from the Jingtai Emperor and becomes the Tianshun Emperor. Shortly afterward, the rebellion of Cao Qin strikes. It was a rebellion to protest being purged from China and quickly put down.
1464
Another rebellion,
this one against the Ming
authority, rises from
the Miao people and
Yao people of Guangxi
and its also crushed. Religion Diplomacy and Politics 1450 to ... today by your fellow classmates..
Audri
Karen
Ashley China It is sometimes said that China isnt actually very religious but in fact they were the first to develop an intellectual scepticism concerning the gods. Their attempts to manipulate the forces that shape the human worlds have been the main part of chinese religion. The Confucianism was dominated by Confucian thinking and was tolerant of religions that satisfied the hearts and minds of the people as long as they did not challenge the basic Confucian ideals. Both Buddhism and Daoism inspired unorthodox doctrines and opinions in religious systems, which caused social rebellions, and lead to state intervention and attempted suppression. Daoism's origins are obscure ans was first seen as a rival to Confucianism.Confucianism stressed ethical action while Daoistd spoke of the virtue of going with the flow of things.
they believed in the good ruler who they thought guided the people with humility, not seeking to interfere with the rhythms of social life conducted within the larger patterns of the natural world and the whole cosmos.As time passed Daoism found itself in direct competition with the foreign teachings of Buddhism. It borrowed Buddhist practices and also drew on folk religious traditions to create its own religious form and ethos. The earlier, more philosophical Daoism has inspired Chinese painters and poets and its teachings appealed to many a scholar officials. Buddhism is the only foreign religion that has been widely accepted in China and was the most dynamic and influential of all religions. Officials began to see its power as a threat to their own power and to the order and prosperity of society. Thus it remained an important element in Chinese life, but took its place alongside Daoism and a revitalised Confucianism. Buddhism taught a radical dualism. Through a long process of adaptation, various Chinese schools emerged such as Chan (Zen) and the Pure Land school, which stuck to traditional Chinese thought. Zen and Pure Land became the dominant forms of Chinese Buddhism. These teachings had their focus on sudden enlightenment and on salvation through grace. Buddhism today continues as an important force in some parts of the country. Its entire influence is unclear, but it remains a key component in Chinese religion. North and North-Westerners converted to Islam from Buddhism and Nestorianism while china also retained a large Muslim population. Male Muslim settlers married Chinese women who still retained their customs. Which created a community that came to be known as the Hui.There are about 15 million Muslims in China today, of whom over seven million are Hui. Politically, Islam is important both because China wans good relations with Muslim countries and because the non-Hui Muslims live in sensitive border areas. Almost all Chinese Muslims are Sunni, but there has been a lot of influence by Sufi brotherhoods in the past 200 years. Historically there has been little persecution of Islam. But there have been serious 'Muslim' rebellions in the North-West in the last century which were responsible for untold loss of life, though the issues at stake were not religion.
Culture Society Random Facts Random History Geographical Stuffsez.. 3.7 million square miles 1.32 million people In the past 30 years China went from a centrally planned system to a more market-oriented economy
thus becoming “major player in the global economy”
Collectivized agriculture to..:
gradual liberation of prices
decentralization
increased autonomy for state enterprises
the foundation of a diversified banking system
the development of stock markets
the rapid growth of the non-state sector
the opening to foreign trade and investment Reforms began in the 1970's.. Chinese Communist Party or CCP
has 6 parties under/in it
Labor force of 812.7 million and have the most worldwide.. (2009 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.3% (September 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
4.2% (December 2008 est.)
note: official data for urban areas only; including migrants may boost total unemployment to 9%; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas Agricultural Products:rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish Economy Industries: mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites Total area: 9,596,961 sq. km. (about 3.7 million sq. mi.).
Cities: Capital--Beijing. Other major cities--Shanghai, Tianjin, Shenyang, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chongqing, Harbin, Chengdu.
Terrain: Plains, deltas, and hills in east; mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west.
Climate: Tropical in south to subarctic in north.
Language: Mandarin
Population growth rate:0.655%.
Infant mortality rate--20.25 deaths/1,000 live births.
Life expectancy--73.47 years (overall); 71.61 years for males, 75.52 years for females Type: Communist party-led state.

Constitution: December 4, 1982; revised several times, most recently in 2004.

Independence: Unification under the Qin Dynasty. Qing Dynasty replaced by a republic on February 12, 1912; People's Republic established October 1, 1949.

Branches: Executive--president, vice president, State Council, premier. Legislative--unicameral National People's Congress. Judicial--Supreme People's Court.
Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (the P.R.C. considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province); 5 autonomous regions, including Tibet; 5 municipalities directly under the State Council.

Political parties: Chinese Communist Party, 73.1 million members; 8 minor parties under Communist Party supervision.
There are seven Chinese dialects and many subdialects. Mandarin,the dominant dialect, is spoken by over 70% of the population. It is taught in all schools. Southwest and southeast China speak one of the six other major Chinese dialects. Non-Chinese languages spoken widely include Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and other Turkic languages (in Xinjiang), and Korean (in the northeast).
Ice cream was invented in China around 2000BC when the Chinese packed a soft milk and rice mixture in the snow. ^_^

When a Chinese child loses a baby tooth, it doesn't get tucked under the pillow for the tooth fairy. If the child loses an upper tooth, the child's parents plant the tooth in the ground, so the new tooth will grow in straight and healthy. Parents toss a lost bottom tooth up to the rooftops, so that the new tooth will grow upwards, too.

Fourth graders are expected to know 2,000 of the over 40,000 written Chinese characters. By the time they leave college, they will know 4,000 or 5,000 characters. Each character is learned by looking at it and memorizing it. Unlike the 26 letters of our alphabet, words cannot be sounded out letter by letter.

Each year is represented by an animal. There are twelve animals which represent the twelve months. According to readings Buddha named the years after the twelve animals that came to visit him before he left the earth. The Chinese believe that you have some of the characteristics of the animal representing the year in which you were born.
•Paper, Compass, Explosive Powder and Printing qualify as the "Four Great Inventions of China". They are also credited with having invented the wheel and the first calender. the great wall of China! Built to keep out the Huns in 220 BC.
About 1500mi long!!!!! its actually slightly smaller than the U.S.! Country Camparison according to the CIA World Factbook:
1-Russia (17,098,242)
2-Canada (9,984,670)
3-U.S. (9,826,675)
4-China (9,596,961)
**(in SQ KM)** Natural Resources:
coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest) frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species 1864
the Ever Victorious Army is disbanded. it was the first Chinese army that employed a European officer corps, tactics and strategy 1884
the Sino-French War was a conflict fought to decide whether France should replace China in control of Tonkin (northern Vietnam). The French are usually considered the victors because they achieved their war aims.
Nevertheless, the French triumph was marred by a number of defeats in individual battles and the Chinese armies performed rather better than they did in China’s other nineteenth-century foreign wars. In some quarters near Guangxi and in Taiwan the war is even regarded as a Chinese victory. Jiuzhaigou Valley is a nature reserve in northern Sichuan province of China #1 telephone, internet and cellphone users From 1644 to 1911 A.D. a.k.a Ching dynasty, there were two styles of secret societies the Hung (Southern China) and Ching or "Green" (Northern China). open doors at New Years death sounds like four and the Chinese REALLY don't like things dealing with death or dying and so even ghost stories are like taboo if you cry on New Year's you cry all year Red is a bright happy color.. About time
*Clipping toenails or fingernails at night is bad luck; the person will be visited by a ghost.
*If a dog howls continuously at night, this means death.
*Hearing a crow cawing between 3 and 7 am means the hearer will receive gifts; hearing a crow caw between 7 and 11am means rain and wind; and between 11am and 1pm means quarrels.
*If a man's ears burn between 11pm and 1pm, there will be harmony between him and his wife; if they burn between 1 and 3 in the afternoon, a guest will soon arrive.
Lucky and unlucky numbers
*The luckiest number is eight because its Chinese word also means "prosper".
*The unluckiest number is four as it sounds like the Chinese word for death.
*Seven can also signify death.
*The number one means loneliness.
*The number "9" is good, because nine in Cantonese sounds like the word "sufficient".
Lucky and unlucky colors
*Red is the color of blood or life and will bring happiness, wealth, fame, and good luck.
*Black is the color of feces and is associated with evil, disaster and bad fortune.
*White is the color of mother's milk. It symbolizes moderation, purity, honesty and life and balances red and black. Going to funerals
*An improper funeral will bring ill fortune and disaster.
*Statues of deities must be covered with red cloth of paper.
*White cloth must be hung across the doorway of the house.
*The deceased's children and grandchildren should not cut their hair for 49 days. Good Feng Shui
*The number of steps in a staircase should be even-numbered.
*It is bad luck to have two room doors face each other.
*It is bad luck if your door or gate directly faces a road.
*Don't build your house facing the north.
*The master's bedroom should not be situated right above the garage.
*The dining area should not be under a second-floor toilet. Before you get married
*Wedding clothes should be red, yellow and/or white.Wearing black, blue or gray will bring bad luck to the marriage.
*Couples with the same surname cannot marry; even if they are not related, they still belong to the same ancestry.
*Never marry someone who is older or younger by 3 or 6 years.
When having a baby
*If you're pregnant, use of glue will cause a difficult birth.
*If you strike an animal during pregnancy, the newborn child will look like that animal and behave like one.
*You should never praise a newborn baby because it will invite evil spirits and ghosts.
*A baby with more than one hair crown will be mischievous and disobedient.
*A baby with wide and thick ears will live prosperously. Xia (c. 2200 - c. 1750 BC)
Shang (c. 1750 - c. 1040 BC)
Western Zhou (c. 1100 - 771 BC)
Eastern Zhou (771 - 256 BC)
Spring & Autumn Period (722 - 481 BC)
Warring States Period (403 - 221 BC)
Qin (221 - 206 BC)
Earlier Han (206 BC - AD 8)
Wang Mang Interregnum (AD 8 - 25)
Later Han (25 - 220)
Three Kingdoms (220 - 265)
Dynasties of the North and South (317 - 589)
Sui (589 - 618)
Tang (618 - 907)
Northern Song (960 - 1125)
Southern Song (1127 - 1279)
Yuan (Mongol) (1279 - 1368)
Ming (1368 - 1644)
Qing (Manchu) (1644 - 1911)
Republican China (1911- 1949 )
(Moved to Taiwan after 1949)
The People's Republic of China (1949- )
Recent China

1925
•Forbidden City became a museum.
1927 - 1937
•Ten-year civil war between Kuomintang (KMT, lead by Chiang Kai Shek) and Chinese Communist Party (CCP, lead by Mao Zedong).
Dec 12, 1936
•Xian Incident - Chiang Kai Shek agreed to go hand in hand with the CCP to form a united front against Japanese.
January, 1937
•Generalissimo Chiang Kai Shek & Madame Soong May Ling named Person of Year by Time.
July 7, 1937
•Lugouqiao Incident China started her eight-year defending war against Japanese invasion.
April 23, 1949
•Chiang Kai Shek relocated ROC to Taiwan. Capital city Taipei.
October 1, 1949
•Establishment of People’s Republic of China (PRC). Capital city Beijing. Mao Zedong was the first Chairman. Inaugural ceremony held at Tiananmen Square.
1974
•Discovery of the Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses in Xian.

The Chinese Communist Party’s 17th Party Congress, held in October 2007, saw the elevation of key “fifth generation” leaders to the Politburo and Standing Committee, including Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, Li Yuanchao, and Wang Yang. At the National People’s Congress plenary held in March 2008, Xi was elected Vice President of the government, and Li Keqiang was elected Vice Premier.
Dynastic Period
China is the oldest continuous major world civilization, with records dating back about 3,500 years. With a Confucian state ideology and a common language to connect all the different local dialects, Chinese civilization became stronger. China was constantly conquered by different nomadic tribes, but instead of the Chinese civilization changing the conquerors would sooner or later adopted the ways of the "higher" Chinese civilization and staffed the bureaucracy with Chinese. The last dynasty was established in 1644 was the Qing dynasty by the Manchus with Beijing as the capitol. Later Western powers gained economic and political privileges. Chinese officials argued for the adoption of Western technology to strengthen the dynasty and counter Western advances, but the Qing court played down both the Western threat. Early 20th Century China
Young officials, military officers, and students--inspired by the revolutionary ideas of Sun Yat began to advocate the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and creation of a republic because of the Qing court's resistance to reform. A revolutionary military uprising on October 10, 1911, led to the fall of the last Qing monarch. As part of a compromise to overthrow the dynasty without a civil war, the revolutionaries gave high Qing officials positions in the new republic. One of these figures, Yuan Shikai, was chosen as the republic's first president. Before his death in 1916, Yuan unsuccessfully attempted to name himself emperor. His death left the republican government all but shattered, ushering in the era of the "warlords" during which China was ruled and ravaged by shifting coalitions of competing provincial military leaders. The People's Republic of China
On October 1 1949 in Beijing, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.). The new government assumed control of China whose people were exhausted by two generations of war and social conflict. A new political and economic order modeled on the Soviet example was quickly installed. In the early 1950s, China undertook a massive economic and social reconstruction program. The leaders gained the people's support by curbing inflation, restoring the economy, and rebuilding many war-damaged industrial plants. The "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino-Soviet Split
1958- Mao left the Soviet economic model and brought out a new economic program, the "Great Leap Forward," aimed at rapidly raising industrial and agricultural production. Giant communes were formed, and "backyard factories" appeared along the Chinese landscape. The program failed and market mechanisms were disrupted, agricultural production fell behind, and China's people exhausted themselves producing products that could not be sold. People began to starve. 1689
Treaty of Nerchinsk The Russians gave up the area north of the Amur River and east of the mouth of the Argun River but kept the area between the Argun River and Lake Baikal. 1839
Under the Daoguang Emperor, the 1st Opium War 1842
The treaty of Nanjing 1856 Second Opium War
under the Xianfeng Emperor 1912 Xinhai Revolution- motivated by anger at corruption in the Qing government, frustration with the government's inability to restrain the interventions of foreign powers, and resentment of the majority Han Chinese toward a government dominated by an ethnic minority (the Manchus).
PANDAS!!! in the Chonqing Zoo.. Random Pictures..? FASHION..? The Sacred Way leading to the Ming Tombs in Beijing. Pearl Tower in Shanghai sightseeing tunnel.. Shanghai or New York on steroids?? :) freeways in china.. Shanghai... The Monument to the People's Heroes in Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The Mao Zedong Mausoleum (or Chairman Mao Memorial Hall) was constructed in 1977 on Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The Hall of Supreme Harmony was destroyed by fire seven times and was last rebuilt in 1695-97. Many of the buildings of the Forbidden City were built from precious woods and marble; golden bricks were used for floors. Roof of a building in the Forbidden City A gilded lion sits before the Palace of Tranquil Longevity in the Forbidden City. A section of the Forbbiden City at sunset A traditional neighborhood... Pic of The Long Corridor.. Dragon Gate Gorge Pagoda daily life pics The chinese zodiac ^_^ all the non-Communist parties have earnestly participated in the consultations and decisions concerning important issues in the state's political life; and many representatives of the non-Communist parties have been elected deputies to the people's congresses and members of the committees of the CPPCC at various levels.
Many members of the non-Communist Parties hold leading posts on the standing committees of the people's congresses, the committees of the CPPCC, government organs, and economic, cultural, educational, scientific, and technological departments at various levels.
The non-Communist parties of China are friendly parties that "coexist over a long period of time, engage in mutual supervision, show utter devotion to each other and share honor and disgrace, weal and woe" with the CPC. They are parties participating in government and political affairs. The recent crisis over North Korea's nuclear weapons has had at least one unexpected aspect: the crucial intervention of Beijing. China's steady diplomacy is a sign of how much things have changed in the country, which has long avoided most international affairs. Recently, China has begun to embrace regional and global institutions it once shunned and take on the responsibilities that come with great-power status. Just what the results of Beijing's new sophistication will remain the same; but Asia, and the world, will never be the same.
Things you should never do
*Beating a person with a broom will rain bad luck upon that person for years.
*Wearing a moustache is considered bad luck.
*Never point at the moon or your ears might get chopped off.
*Don't sweep the floor on New Year's Day lest you sweep away the good fortune.
*Don't keep a pet turtle or it will slow down your business.
From 1960 to 1961, a combination of poor planning during and bad weather resulted in one of the most deadly famines in human history. The already strained Sino-Soviet relationship was ruined even more in 1959, when the Soviets started restricting the flow of scientific and technological information to China. The fighting got worse and the Soviets withdrew everyone in their ranks from China in August 1960. 1368-1644: Ming Dynasty, founded by the Zhu Family
Capitol city Beijing. Ming Dynasty actually end up in hand of so called Robbers.
Zicheng shook up the empire and created opputunity for the foreign tribe Nuzhen to invade China.
Restoring of the Great Wall
Building of Forbidden City (1420), Temple of Heaven (1420) and Ming Tombs(1409-1644) Modern China
1644 1911 - Qing Dynasty, founded by Nuzhen, Ai Xin Jue Luo Family
•Capital city Beijing.
•Nuzhen was the second foreign tribe ever ruled in China.
•The kings of Kangxi, Yongzheng & Qianlong brought around 150 years of peace to China.
•Empress Dowager Cixi governed China for half a century in late Qing Dynasty.
•Building of the Summer Palace by Empress Dowager Cixi (1888).
1842
Opium War between China and the Great Britain. China was defeated and signed the Treaty of Nanking.
•Hong Kong became a British Colony under the Treaty of Nanking.
1911
•Revolution lead by Dr. Sun Yat Sen overthrown Qing Dynasty - end of Imperialism in China.
•Establishment of Republic of China (ROC). Capital city Nanking.
•Following the collapse of the Qing Dynasty, China was in chaos. Communism began to grow in China.
1987
•UNESCO listed the Great Wall and Forbidden City as World Cultural Heritages.
July 1, 1997
•Hong Kong returned to the sovereignty of China.
•China history since then has two new terms: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) and One Country Two Systems.
June, 1998
•US President Bill Clinton visited China. Cities visited included Xian, Beijing, Shanghai, Guilin and Hong Kong.
Dec 20, 1999
•Macau returned to the sovereignty of China and became the second SAR.
2003
•UNESCO listed the Ming Tombs as a World Cultural Heritage.
2008
•Beijing hosts the Summer Olympics.
•Hong Kong co-hosts the Equestrian events. ha you thought it ended! now its done! :)... maybe... no its done
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