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Transcript of Romantic Era
Harmonic language Strings Brass Woodwinds More commonly known as Romanticism, this Era expresses freedom and individuality. During the early Classical periods such as Baroque, music was made for the church and only for the church because there was no profit, or benefit (except self enjoyment). As Music progressed, it became more popular, and eventually became a form of entertainment such as operas, theater, etc. The romantic era is where most of the famous composers come from, because there were no limitations or pressure to create music. Some are Rachmaninoff, Chopin, Tchaikovsky, Beethoven, Weber, Schubert, Berlioz, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Liszt, Wagner, Brahms, Dvorak, Grieg, Mahler, Strauss, and Puccini. Instruments Used in the Romantic Period Piano In the periods before the Romantic era, including the Classical era, the harpsichord and organ dominated most musical works with light, soft sounds. In the Romantic period, these instruments diminished in popularity and the piano took their place Woodwinds Though woodwinds had always been a part of the orchestra, woodwind sections in the Romantic era grew with the improvements in instrumentation. These larger sections included at least two bassoons, oboes, flutes and clarinets; previous orchestras may have featured only one or even none of these woodwinds. Percussion Although orchestras had always used the timpani, a small drum made of a copper bowl and calfskin drumhead, the percussion section expanded during the Romantic era. Some orchestras relegated the organ and harpsichord to this section. Musicians also started using bass drums, gongs, cymbals, bells, chimes and other percussion instruments that added to the variety and invention that characterized the Romantic period. The piano, when not used as a solo instrument, could be part of the percussion section of an orchestra, as the instrument functions as a percussion instrument, Brass As technological improvments lead to brass instruments with valves, the brass section of the Romantic era orchestra increased in size and scope. The brass section includes trumpets, horns, trombones and tubas. Strings Although the Romantic era did not bring many innovations in the string family, the string section in orchestras grew larger to balance out the sound from the larger woodwind and brass sections. This string section was still the largest section in the orchestra. While pianos and drums allowed for innovation and artistic license, the strings provided the basis of much of the orchestra's sound.String instruments include violins, viola, cello and stringed bass, also known as double bass. Harp is another string instrument used in orchestras of the era Percussion Piano Modulations to unrelated keys was frequent and demonstrated with ease by Chopin and Schubert Expanded 7th chords were used, and the wide spread use of Augmented 6th chords took place. Harmonically, the music is more advanced than that of the classical period as composers experimented more with harmonies to assist in telling the story or setting the mood of the piece Vocal music took a major change in this time! From the use of Choirs in the Baroque to solo works and concert pieces in the Romantic. Schubert, Schumann, and Brahms all composed songs. Chopin, Liszt, Mendelssohn did as well but on a smaller scale. All composers at this time composed at least 1 song cycle with Schubert carrying the bulk of the work. Orchestration in the classical era was much tinier
- typical orchestras of the time consisted of:
Strings: 1st violins, 2nd violins, violas, cellos, double basses
Woodwinds: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons
Brass: 2 french horns, 2 trumpets Percussion: 2 timpani Whereas romantic orchestras were of a much larger scale, with nearly double amounts of each instrument and a much larger brass and percussion section (ie, small scale percussion instruments such as triangles, glockenspiels and tambourines were introduced.) Major events 1830 - first railroad
1831 - Copyright Act of 1831 (first to include music)
Oxford Movement (1831-1861)
1848 - Gold Rush
1849 - Industrial Revolution in Europe
Growth of Capitalism and Socialism
Crimean War (1854-1856)
1861-American Civil War (1861-1865)
1865 - Lincoln assassinated
1865 - Slavery abolished in America
1870-Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
1877 - Thomas Edison invents sound recording (phonograph)
1881 - Tsar Alexander II assassinated
1881 - President Garfield shot
1881 - Panama canal built
1886 - Statue of Liberty unveiled in New York
1898 - Spanish-American War Sergei Rachmaninoff Born in Onega, in the district of Novgorod,Russia on April 1, 1873
When he was nine he entered the St. petersburg conservatory on a scholarship
Though he possessed extraordinary growth and perfect pitch, he showed no interest in his studies and was lazy with his habits
He disliked practicing the piano and disliked studying music theory even more only his natural gifts made it possible for him to keep in a comfortable stride with his fellow pupils
In 1883-1885 the boy studied under Sverev, who then nursed the young boy's love and gift for music into a full flame Richard Struass Born in Munich on June 11, 1864
His father was a horn player for Wagner
Became violin pupil for Benno Walter
Many of his early works follow Classical models