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Cognitive Development: Piaget and Vygotsky

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Melissa Clucas

on 7 November 2013

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Transcript of Cognitive Development: Piaget and Vygotsky

Cognitive Development: Piaget and Vygotsky in Early Childhood
Ages 2-7
Piaget's Preoperational Stage
Follow-Up Research on
Preoperational Thought
Key Concepts
Make-Believe Play
Limitations of Preoperational Thought
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
Social Origins of Early Childhood Cognition
Private Speech
Piaget and Vygotsky in Early Childhood Education
Educational Principles
Derived from Vygotsky
Importance of Make-Believe Play
Peer Collaboration
Educational Principles Derived from Piaget
Discovery Learning
Dual Representation
Challenges to Vygotsky's Theory
Sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience which children then label with words
Piaget believed that through pretending, young children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes
These occur gradually with age!
Development of Make-Believe Play
Play detaches from real-life conditions
Benefits of Make-Believe Play
Social
Interactions last longer
More involvement
More children interacting cooperatively
Viewed as more socially competent by teachers
Offer a variety of both realistic materials and materials without clear functions
Enhancing Make-Believe Play
failure to distinguish the others' viewpoints from one's own
Egocentrism
Most obvious change is increase in mental representation
Language is our most flexible means of mental representation
speechbuddy.com
Includes more complex sociodramatic play
Becomes less self-centered
Cognitive
Sustained attention, memory, logical reasoning, language and literacy, imagination, and creativity
Ability to reflect on one's own thinking and behavior
Ability to take another's perspective
Help children solve social conflicts consructively
Ensure that children have many rich, real-world experiences to inspire positive fantasy play
Provide sufficient space and play materials
Supervise and encourage children's play without controlling it
viewing a symbolic object as both an object and a symbol
mastered around age 3
Adult teaching can help...
Provide lots of maps, photos, drawings, make-believe playthings
point out similarities to the real world
young children are not capable of operations, or mental actions that obey logical rules
thinking is limited to one aspect of a situation at a time and strongly influenced by the way things appear
according to Piaget
animistic thinking: the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts or wishes
Inability to Conserve
conservation:
the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes
centration:
the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation while neglecting other important features
an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point
irreversibility:
Lack of Hierarchical Classification
the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences
Researchers have challenged the view of preschoolers as cognitively deficient
Many Piagetian problems contain unfamiliar elements or too many pieces of information for young children
children's self-directed speech
Piaget called this "ecogentric speech"
Vygotsky viewed it as the foundation for all higher cognitive processes
Helps guide behavior and used more when:
tasks are difficult
after errors
child is confused

Gradually becomes more silent and internalized
this is called inner speech
intersubjectivity:
the process by which two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive at a shared understanding
scaffolding:
adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
guided participation:
shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants
this is the zone of proximal development!
Zone of Proximal Development
a range of tasks too difficult for a child to do alone but possible with the help of more skilled partners
verbal communication is not the only way new information is mastered
says little about how basic motor, perception, attention, memory, and problem-solving skills contribute to higher cognitive processes
Sensitivity to Children's Readiness to Learn
Acceptance of Individual Differences
children are encouraged to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with the environment
teachers provide a rich variety of activities designed to promote exploration and discovery
art
puzzles
table games
dress-up clothing
building blocks
books
musical
instruments
teachers do not try to speed up development by imposing new skills before children indicate they are ready to learn
developmentally appropriate practice
assumption that all children go through the same sequence of development, but at different rates
teachers evaluate each child's educational progress in relation to the child's previous development, rather than on the basis of normative standards
teachers plan activities for individual children and small groups, not just for the whole class
Assisted Discovery
teachers guide children's learning with explanations, demonstrations, and verbal prompts
teaching is tailored to each child's zone of proximal development
Children with varying abilities work in groups, teaching and helping one another
mixed age classrooms allow younger children to have wiser peers to scaffold them to the next level
Vygotsky saw as the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood
As children create imaginary situations, they learn to follow internal ideas and social rules, rather than their immediate impulses
What Should Kindergarten Look Like?
Theory Sort
Work with your group members to match the phrases to the correct theorist
Piaget & Vygotsky in Preschool Philosophies
Piaget
Vygotsky
Full transcript