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Wearing on Her Nerves...Study Case Questions
Transcript of Wearing on Her Nerves...Study Case Questions
3.What movement are involved in the action of standing up? What muscles need to contract to perform these actions?
Standing up requires work from the muscles of the lower body along with upper body acting as stability; quadriceps, hamstrings, calves,core, glutes, and the tibialis anterior.
2.What components of the nervous system are involved in skeletal muscle movement? How does motor impulse move throughout the body? What is a "motor unit"?
Skeletal muscles are controlled by the SNS; the axon carries impulses away from the cell body.Nerve impulses begin in a dendrite,move toward the cell body, and then move down the axon.When the impulse reaches the axon tip at the end of the neuron,the impulse transfers along the next neuron over the synapse.A motor neuron sends an impulse to a muscle or gland,and the muscle or gland reacts in response; all of the muscle cells hat are controlled by a single motor neuron.
1. What Components of the nervous system are involved in physical sensation? How does sensory impulse move throughout the body?
4. What are the different levels of organization of a muscle down to myofilaments? What is a "sarcomere" and how are its proteins organized?
Muscle, fascile, mucle fiber, myofibril, myofilaments; sarcomere is the basic unit of a muscle. muscle-composed of tubular muscle cells, muscle cells- tubular myofibrils, myofibrils- repeating sessions of sarcomeres, sarcomeres- long fibrous proteins that slide past each other when the muscles contract and relax.
6. Are Kathy's medical problems related to her sensory neurons, motor neurons, or both? what in Kathy's medical history support your answer?
Her medical problems are related to both because her sensory neurons are responsible for the numb/tingling sensation, and her motor neurons are responsible for the inability to control her lungs.
5. Starting from the release of acetylcholine by the motor neuron, what are the steps in muscle contraction? How is contraction ended?
At motor end plate, action potential causes release of packets or quanta of acetylcholine into synaptic clefts on the surface of muscle fiber. Acetylcholine causes the electrical resting potential under the motor end plate to change, & this then initiates an action potential which passes in both directions along the surface of the muscle fiber. At opening of each transverse tubule onto the muscle fiber surface, actional potential spreads inside muscle fiber. At each point where a transverse tubule touches part of the saracoplasmic reticulum it causes the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release cat + ions. calcium ions results in movement of troponin and tropomyosin on their thin filaments, and this enables the myosin molecule; acetylcholine at the neuromuscularjunction is broken down by acetylcholinesterase, and this terminates the stream of action potential along the muscle fiber surface. The sarcoplasmic reticulum ceases the calcium ions, and immediately start to resequseter all the calcium ions that have been released, in absence of calcium ions, a change in the configuration of troponin molecule heads, and contraction ceases.
8. What are the "sclerases" in multiple sclerosis & where do they occur? How does this influence nerve transmission?
In white matter; stops the transmission which caused her symptoms of numbness.
7. What is myelin and how does it affect the transmission of nerve impulses? Identify the cells responsible for the formation of myelin.
Lippoprotein that covers the axon as an insulator, helps speed up transmission through salutatory conduction; Oligodentocyte in CNS & schwan cells in PNS.
Wearing on Her Nerves...Study Case Questions
9. How does an MRI & spinal tap help confirm the diagnosis of multiple Sclerosis?
MRI shows white necrotic plaques & enlarged ventricles myelin basic protein in spinal tap means breaking down myelin.
10. How did steroids help alleviate Kathy's symptoms?
Reducing inflammation on the brain & spinal cord, decrease the amount of antibodies & severity diseases.
11. How does Copaxone work as treatment for Multiple Sclerosis? How do other types of medications differ?
Copaxone acts as myelin so the immune system can attack that, decoy of myelin basic protein, competative inhibitor, Natalizumab decrease premeability of BBB.
12. Why did Kathy experience the altered sensation in her lower body? Was there something wrong with her skin? Why couldn't she stand? Was there something wrong with the muscles of her right leg?
She was experiencing the altered sensation due to the exacerbation of the autoimmune system attacking the nerves; There was nothing wrong with her skin or muscles, it was all nerve related.
13. Did Kathy's hearing loss have anything to do with the Multiple Sclerosis?
The first symptom of MS for many people is onset of blurred vision, poor contrast or color vision, & pain on eye movement. About 67% of people who have MS complain of impaired hearing. In very rare cases, hearing loss has been reported as the first symptom of the disease.