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Periods Of Literary History
Transcript of Periods Of Literary History
II. THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD (c. 1066-1450 CE)
B. THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD (455 CE-1485 CE)
A. THE CLASSICAL PERIOD (1200 BCE - 455 CE)
D. The Enlightenment (Neoclassical) Period (c. 1660-1790)
The Neoclassical period is often divided into three sub-areas: the Restoration era, the Augustan age, and the Age of Sensibility.
I. HOMERIC or HEROIC PERIOD (1200-800 BCE)
II. CLASSICAL GREEK PERIOD
III. CLASSICAL ROMAN PERIOD
IV. PATRISTIC PERIOD
C. THE RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION (c. 1485-1660 CE)
I. Early Tudor Period (1485-1558)
II. Elizabethan Period (1558-1603)
III. Jacobean Period (1603-1625)
IV. Caroline Age
V. Commonwealth Period or Puritan Interregnum (1649-1660)
These periods are spans of time in which literature shared intellectual, linguistic, religious, and artistic influences. In the
Western tradition, the early periods of literary history are roughly as follows below:
Periods Of Literary History
The heroic age was known as a stage in
the development of human societies. It
was the first literary period. It gave rise to
the legends about heroic deeds and
mythology. In these time it started the
practice of writing literature down.
Homer wrote the Iliad and Odyssey.
This is a chaotic period of warrior-princes,
wandering sea-traders, and fierce pirates.
They beleive in Olympus Guardian.
The influence of Greece was to last throughout the growth of the Roman empire in many shapes and forms, not least because Greeks themselves were the holders of such knowledge. An examplar evidence of this is that Emperor Vespasian encouraged the foreign elite thinkers to move to Rome so that the Roman scholars might stay and learn at home rather than spending their money abroad. Sculpture and visual arts were often performed by Greeks or by Romans copying Greek originals all over the empire. However, poetry, by virtue of the very material (language) and driven by very Roman social characteristics did form connotations of its own in parallel with those of Greece.
Greek writers, playwrights, and philosophers such as Gorgias,
Aesop, Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Euripides, and Sophocles.
The fifth century (499-400 BCE) in particular is renowned as
The Golden Age of Greece. This is the sophisticated period of the polis,
or individual City-State, and early democracy. Some of the world's
finest art, poetry, drama, architecture, and philosophy originate in Athens.
It was not till the conquest of the Greek cities in Southern Italy, shortly before the First Punic War, that we can date the commencement of the Roman literature. It began with the Drama. Dramatic exhibitions were first introduced at Rome from Etruria in B.C. 363. but were only pantomimic scenes to the music of the flute, without any song or dialogue. It was not till B.C. 240 that a drama with a regular plot was performed at Rome. Roman literature rose to its highest excellence under Augustus, declined rapidly under his successors, and was finally lost with the fall of the Western empire. The content of this article provides interesting history, facts and information about Roman Literature and Roman Authors and Poets.
Patristics or Patrology is the study of the Early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers. The names derive from the combined forms of Latin pater and Greek patḗr (father). The period is generally considered to run from the end ofNew Testament times or end of the Apostolic Age (c. AD 100) to either AD 451 (the date of the Council of Chalcedon), or to the 8th century Second Council of Nicaea.
patristic literature, body of literature that comprises those works, excluding the New Testament, written by Christians before the 8th century ad.
Patristic literature is generally identified today with the entire Christian literature of the early Christian centuries, irrespective of its orthodoxy or the reverse. Taken literally, however, patristic literature should denote the literature emanating from the Fathers of the Christian Church, the Fathers being those respected bishops and other teachers of exemplary life who witnessed to and expounded the orthodox faith in the early centuries. This would be in line with the ancient practice of designating as “the Fathers” prominentchurch teachers of past generations who had taken part in ecumenical councils or whose writings were appealed to as authoritative.
It begins with the invasion of Celtic England by Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians) c.450 and lasts until the conquest of England by the Norman-French William the Conqueror in 1066.
Writing of this time was primarily religious verse or prose.
The so-called "Dark Ages" occur when Rome falls and barbarian tribes move into Europe. The Carolingian Renaissance emerges in Europe. In central Europe, texts include early medieval
grammars, encyclopedias, etc. In northern Europe, this time period marks the setting of Viking sagas.
After the Norman invasion, there were linguistic,
social, and cultural changes and also changes in the literature.
In the 15th century, literature aimed at a popular audience grew.
A range of genres emerged, including chivalric romances, secular and religious songs, folk ballads, drama, morality and miracle plays.
In 1066, Norman French armies invade and conquer England under William I. Late or "High" Medieval Period This often tumultuous period is marked by the Middle English
writings of Geoffrey Chaucer, the "Gawain" or "Pearl" Poet, the Wakefield Master, and William Langland. Other
writers include Italian and French authors like Boccaccio, Petrarch, Dante, and Christine de Pisan.
The Early Tudor period is the first phase of the Renaissance period.
This period is known for its poetry and nonfiction prose.
English literature's first dramatic comedy, Ralph Roister Doister, was first performed in 1553.
The War of the Roses ends in England with Henry Tudor (Henry VII) claiming
the throne. Martin Luther's split with Rome marks the emergence of Protestantism, followed by Henry VIII's
Anglican schism, which creates the first Protestant church in England. Edmund Spenser is a sample poet.
Queen Elizabeth saves England from both Spanish invasion and internal
squabbles at home. The early works of Shakespeare, Marlowe, Kydd, and Sidney mark Elizabeth's reign.
The second era of the Renaissance period in British literature, spanning the reign of Elizabeth I.
The Elizabethan era was a period marked by developments in English commerce, nationalism, exploration, and maritime power.
It is considered a great age in literary history, particularly for drama.
Shakespeare's later work, Aemilia Lanyer, Ben Jonson, and John Donne.
The third era of the Renaissance period in British literature defined by the reign of James I.
In this era, there were significant writings in prose, including the King James Bible.
Drama and poetry also flourished.
John Milton, George Herbert, Robert Herrick, the "Sons of Ben" and others write
during the reign of Charles I and his Cavaliers.
The Caroline Age marks the period of the English Civil War between the supporters of the King (called Cavaliers) and the supporters of Parliament (called the Roundheads).
Literature of this period featured poetry, nonfiction prose, and the Cavalier Poets, who were associated with the court and wrote poems of gallantry and courtship.
Under Cromwell's Puritan dictatorship, John
Milton continues to write, but we also find writers like Andrew Marvell and Sir Thomas Browne.
In this era, England was ruled by Parliament and, Oliver Cromwell and then briefly by his son, Richard, until 1859.
Theatres were closed on moral and religious grounds. While drama did not flourish, significant examples of nonfiction prose and poetry were written during this period.
I. Restoration Period (c. 1660-1700
II. The Augustan Age (c. 1700-1750
III. The Age of Johnson (c. 1750-1790)
The Restoration era begins with the crowning of Charles II and the restoration of the Stuart line in 1660 and ends around 1700.
After the Puritan ban on theatres was lifted, theatre came back into prominence.
Drama of this period frequently
focused upon the aristocracy
and the life of the court and
is characterized by its use of
urbanity, wit, and licentious
Many writers in this period identified themselves with writers in the age of the Roman Emperor Augustus.
Augustan writers imitated the literary forms of Horace, Virgil, and Ovid and drew upon the perceived order, decorum, moderation, civility, and wit of these writers.
The Age of Sensibility anticipates the Romantic period.
In contrast to the Augustan era, the Age of Sensibility focused upon instinct, feeling, imagination, and sometimes the sublime.
New cultural attitudes and new theories of literature emerged at this time
The novel became an increasingly popular and
E. ROMANTIC PERIOD (c. 1790-1830)
Many writers in the Romantic period emphasized feeling and imagination and looked toward nature for insight into the divine.
The individual and his or her subjective experiences and expressions of those experiences were highly valued.
Many scholars see the artistic and aesthetic freedoms in romanticism in contrast to the ideals of neoclassicism.
In addition to a wealth of poetry, the Romantic period featured significant innovations in the novel form, including the Gothic novel.
F. VICTORIAN PERIOD And The 19th Century (c. 1832-1901)
Writing during the period of Queen Victoria's reign includes sentimental novels. British
writers include Elizabeth Browning, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Matthew Arnold, Robert
Browning, Charles Dickens, the Brontë sisters, and Jane Austen. Pre- Raphaelites, like the
Rossettis and William Morris, idealize and long for the morality of the medieval world.
The end of the Victorian Period is marked by intellectual movements of Asceticism and "the
Decadence" in the writings of Walter Pater and Oscar Wilde. In America, Naturalist writers
like Stephen Crane flourish, as do early free verse poets like Walt Whitman and Emily