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AOS 2 MEMORY

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by

Helen Diab

on 26 June 2013

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Transcript of AOS 2 MEMORY

Area of Study 2
Memory
Lets Review
Maintenance Rehearsal
Milk
Cheese
Butter
Eggs
Flour
Apples
Grapes
Shampoo
Bread
Ground beef
Cereal
Catsup
Green Beans
Jam
Primacy-Recency Effect
JKBTWAKALOLBFCTCULILYTLDR
JK | BTW | AKA | LOL | BF | CT | CUL | ILY | TLDR
Reconstructive Processes
State Dependent Learning
Improving Memory
Mnemonics
Repetition
Unrehearsed
=
Lost
Unattended
=
Lost
Fades over time
(Decay)
Sensory
Memory
Long-Term
Memory
Short-Term Memory
Encoding
Retrieval
Information
Event
Iconic
what you see and hear
(very brief)
Up to 7 items
(less than 20 seconds)
Vast
(lifetime)
Attention
Assessment 10.1
1. Complete all vocabulary for section 1
3. In what ways is your memory like a computer? In what ways is it different? Explain your responses.
4. What would life be like if you had prosopagnosia?
5. What type of memory would a special event be (Birthday, anniversay etc)?What parts of the brain are involved in remembering the date?
Echoic
Sensory
the alteration of a recalled memory that may be simplified, enriched, or distorted depending on an individual's attitudes, experiences, or inferences.
filling in the gaps that exist in a memory
It's easier to recall information when you are in the same physiological, emotional state, or setting where you originally encoded it.
What is Memory?
Memory is the storage and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced.
And guess what?
Processes
Encoding
Storage
Retrieval
Information is acquired and processed into neural code (just as information is entered with a keyboard.)
Information is stored in the brain (Just as it is stored in a computer's hard dive)
Information is retrieved when it is needed (just as it shows up on screen so it can be viewed.)
http://mashable.com/2012/07/02/best-cat-memes-ever/
Rehearsal
Stages
Who do you think has better short-term memory: a chimpanzee or a human being?
What would life be like without Short Term Memory?
repeating information to oneself over and over without attempting to find meaning.
AKA Repetition
F
Improving Short Term Memory
i
ng
The process of grouping items to make them easier to remember
Look at the following list and write down as many items as you can remember.
Remembering the last items in the list because they are still in short term memory
Remembering the first items in the list because you had more time to rehearse them.
Forgotten
Effect
Effect
current
Includes things that just occurred and information stored and recently recalled
Human Memory Tree
Sensory
Memory
Short-Term
Memory
Long-Term
Memory
Musical
Memory
Explicit
Memory
(conscious)
Implicit
Memory
(unconscious)
Procedural
Memory
(skills and tasks)
Declarative
Memory
(Events and Facts)
Episodic
(Events & Experiences
Semantic
(Concepts & Facts)
Maintenance
Rehearsal
Retrieval
Long-Term Memory
storage of memory over an extended period of time.
Types of Long-Term Memory
Retrieving Information
Memory retrieval in which a person reconstructs previously learned material.
Recognition
Memory retrieval in which a person identifies an object, idea, or situation as one he or she has or has not experienced before.
http://www.open.edu/openlearn/body-mind/psychology/take-the-photographic-memory-test
When information in LTM is unretrievable
Interference
blockage of memories or loss of retrieval cues.
Old Blocks New
New Blocks

Old
Amnesia
What?
http://www.exploratorium.edu/exhibits/droodles/droodledcr.html
Mechanisms of Memory Formation
A good way to study for exam is to turn the study design dot points into questions- this way you ensure that you are covering all the key knowledge and skills expected of you for the exam- Remember the VCAA are NOT allowed to assess you on anything that is NOT in the study design!
1)What is the ROLE of the Axon..
2)What is the ROLE of the Dendrite..
3)What is the ROLE Synapses..
4)What is the ROLE of neurotransmitters..
In MEMORY?

ROLES of AMYGDALA and HIPPOCAMPUS
Be sure to know the structures but more importantly focus on their ROLE in memory:

AMYGDALA:
- Have been found to have a role in the memory of emotions shown on faces.
-Research shows that for declarative memory with emotional content such as winning an important game of sport, the amydgala has a role in activating the hippocampus

ROLE OF TEMPORAL LOBE IN MEMORY
assists in memory of language, specifically for naming familiar objects, places and faces
constructing flent articulate and coherent speech
Also involved in the memory of facts and personally significant events and familiar routines.
Role of the Hippocampus
Assists in memory formation by:
sorting and storage and the transfer of information from STM to LTM
damage can lead to permanent STM and LTM dysfunction
its usually larger in women than in men
the hippocampus cells can reproduce and therefor enables new learning to take place and new memories to form
it establishes the background or context of a memory for us eg the location, situation and our memory of places
Importantly, tranfers declarative information to other relevant parts of the brain for permanent storage
Neurons show changes in the synapse due to chemicals known as NEUROTRANSMITTERS
NEUROTRANSMITTERS



THE POWER OF THREE!
CONSOLIDATION THEORY
Structural CHANGES
to the neurons
Must remain UNDISTURBED
for some TIME
The 3 processes required for memory storage
Amnesia resulting from Brain Trauma
These occur as a result of physical damage of some sort to the brain
They are
physiologically
based (eg occurring through accidents, injury or disease)
AMNESIA
refers to a general condition where there is memory loss (complete or partial)
Two types of Amnesia
Anterograde: (
Memory loss)

A = AFTER
Retrograde: (
Memory Loss) Retro = Old = AFTER
I Have Dementia
I have Alzeihmer's
1)How is my memory affected?
2)What are the causes of my disease?
3)How common is my disease?
4)What kind if treatment can I expect?
FREUD'S MOTIVATED FORGETTING THEORY
SUPPRESSION= Conscious action
REPRESSION = Unconcious action
Decay Theory (tooth decay)
The fading of memories due to
disuse
time
reactivation possible if used occasionally
RELEARNING
Or the "method

of savings"
Learning material again and is always measured as a percentage (%)
NARRATIVE CHAINING
combining imagery and verbalisation in the form of a story to link a list of unconected.
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