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Transcript of Mongolia
1000BC Bronze age nomads erected mysterious megaliths throughout regions of Mongolia and southern Siberia about this time. Some scholars believed them to be the work of Iron Age peo-ples who appeared by 700BC.
(Arch, 1/06, p.17)
400-300BC The Chinese began suffering from fierce attacks of nomadic herdsmen, the Hsiung-nu, from the north and west. They began to build parts of what came to be called the Great Wall for protection.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.24)
300-200BC During the 3rd century BC Mongolia became the center of the Hsiung-nu empire.
c300-1000AD During the 4th-10th century AD, Orhon Turks were prominent in Mongolia.
500 Ancient Turks are believed to have originated in Mongolia about this time.
(Arch, 1/06, p.17)
550-730 Ancient Turkic people flourished in Mongolia during this period.
(Arch, 1/06, p.19)
745-840 The Uighur of eastern Turkestan formed an empire in the north that was ended by an invasion of the Kyrgyz peoples.
c1162 Genghis Khan (d.1227) was born in the Hentiyn Nuruu mountains north of Ulan Bator [see 1167]. His given name was Temujin, "the ironsmith." He later seized control over much of the 5 million square miles that covered China, Iran, Iraq, Burma, Vietnam, most of Korea and Russia. His efforts in Vietnam were not successful. He was succeeded by his son Ogedai, who was succeeded by Guyuk. Tim Severin later authored "In Search of Genghis Khan." [see Ju-vaini, 1253-1260]
(SFC, 4/14/96, T-10)(WUD, 1994, p. 591)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)
1189 Temiijin (27) became the acknowledged leader of the Mongols and was named Genghis Khan (King of Everything).
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)
1206 Genghis Khan declared himself "the ruler of those who live in felt tents."
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.27)
1206-1226 Genghis Khan unified the Mongols and over the next twenty years conquered northern China and all of Asia west to the Caucasus. The Mongols numbered about 2 million and his army about 130,000.
(V.D.-H.K.p.169)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.27)
c1220 Genghis Khan made Karakorum his capital.
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)
1227 Aug 18, Genghis Khan (Chinggis), Mongol conqueror, died in his sleep at his camp, dur-ing his siege of Ningxia, the capital of the rebellious Chinese kingdom of Xi Xia. Subotai was one of Genghis Khan's ablest lieutenants, and went on to distinguish himself after the khan's death. In Khan's lifetime he and his warriors had conquered the majority of the civilized world, ruling an empire that stretched from Poland down to Iran in the west, and from Russia's Arctic shores down to Vietnam in the east. Russian archaeologist Peter Kozloff uncovered the tomb of Genghis Khan in the Gobi Desert in 1927. In 2006 Zhu Yaoting, a Beijing academic, au-thored a biography of Genghis Khan.
(AP, 8/18/97)(HN, 10/29/98)(Econ, 12/23/06, p.61)
1229-1241 Ugoodei (Ogedei), Genghis' successor, reigned over this period.
1234 Ugoodei (Ogedei) attacked and overcame the Chin (Juchen) dynasty of China.
1236 Queen Rusudani (41), the daughter of Queen Tamara, fled Georgia as the unstoppable Mongol hordes ravished the area. She had been proclaimed "King" at the death of her brother.
1237-1238 Batu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan, invaded Russia.
(AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.28)
1237-1240 Mongols conquered Russian lands.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)
1238 Feb 3, The Mongols took over Vladimir, Russia.
1240 Dec 6, Mongols under Batu Khan occupied and destroyed Kiev.
1240 A chronicle of the life of Genghis Khan and his successors: “The Secret Life of the Mon-gols,” was written about this time. A Chinese version was discovered by a Russian diplomat in the early 1800s. In 1982 Francis Woodman Cleaves produced a modern version.
(www.ezlink.com/~culturev/secret.html)(SSFC, 5/22/05, p.C3)
1241 Apr 9, In the Battle of Liegnitz, Silesia, Mongol armies defeated the Poles and Germans. In this year the Mongols defeated the Germans and invaded Poland and Hungary. The death of their leader Ughetai (Ogedei) forced them to withdraw from Europe.
1241 A trumpeter in Krakow, Poland, was shot through the throat by an archer as he warned the city of a fast-approaching Mongol army.
(SSFC, 12/28/03, p.C6)
1241 The Great Khan Ogedei (Ugoodei) died after completing the Mongol conquest of China and Korea. In April the Mongols routed the armies of Poles, Germans, and Hungarians, at Liegnitz and Mohi, within easy distance of Vienna. Only the death of Ogedei stopped their ad-vance into Europe.
1242 Batu, the grandson of Genghis Khan, established his "Golden Horde" at Sarai on the Lower Volga.
1243 Jun 26, The Seljuk Turkish army in Asia Minor was wiped out by the Mongols.
1245 John of Plano Carpini was a Franciscan monk who set out on the instructions of Pope Innocent IV to gather intelligence. He was met by Mongol horseman and was brought to wit-ness the enthronement of Guyuk Khan. He experienced a sudden hailstorm followed by a flash flood that killed 160 people.
(SFC, 4/14/96, T-10)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.22)
1253-1260 Ata-Malik Juvaini (b.1226) authored “The History of the World Conqueror,” an account of the life of Genghis Khan and his successors. Juvaini, in service to the Mongol governors, drew on the recollections of his father and grandfather. In 1997 J.A. Boyle published an English translation.
1256 Kublai-khan began his reign as the sixth grand khan, ruler of the Tartars. [see 1259]
1258 Feb 10, Huegu, a Mongol leader, seized Baghdad, bringing and end to the Abbasid ca-liphate. Mongol invaders from Central Asia took over Baghdad and ended the Abbasid-Seljuk Empire.
(ATC, p.91)(AP, 2/10/99)
1259 Aug 11, Mongke, Mongol great-khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, died.
1259-1294 The great Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis, reigned.
1260 Mar 1, Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis, conquered Damascus.
1260 Sep 3, Mamelukes under Sultan Qutuz defeated Mongols and Crusaders at Ain Jalut.
1264 Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, moved his capital from Karakorum to what later became Beijing. Karakorum was all but abandoned and eventually destroyed by Manchu-rian invaders over the next century.
(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)
1264 According to Marco Polo, Kublai Khan in this year sent a large body of troops to attack Japan, then known as the island of Zipangu. The two officers in charge, named Abbacatan and Vonsancin, failed to cooperate and the adventure failed. [see 1274]
1274 The first Mongol invasion of Japan. [see 1264]
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)
1279-1368 The Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty in China (1279-1368) was established by the great Kublai Khan (reigned 1259-94), a grandson of Genghis.
1281 Aug 14, During the second Mongol attempt to conquer Japan, Kublai Khan's invading fleet disappeared in typhoon off of Japan. A Mongol army of 45,000 from Korea had joined an armada with 120,000 men from southern China landing at Hakozaki Bay. The typhoon de-stroyed their fleet leaving them to death or slavery.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(EWH, 4th ed., p.369)(MC, 8/14/02)
1294 Feb 12, Kublai Khan, the conqueror of Asia, died at the age of 80.
1294 When Arghun died by probable poisoning after six years of rule, he was succeeded by his uncle, Ki-akato, who was able to seize power because the son of Arghun, Kasan, was far away. After two years Ki-akato was poisoned and his uncle, Baidu, a Christian, seized power. Kasan then assembled an army and marched against Baidu. Kasan was victorious and gained control over the Eastern Tartars.
(TMPV, pp. 334-336)
1336-1405 Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or Tamerlane because of a lame leg) was a Tar-tar conqueror of a vast empire from southern Russia to Mongolia and southward to India, Per-sia, and Mesopotamia. After his death the empire fell apart. Prince Timur is a national hero of Uzbekistan.
(V.D.-H.K.p.169)(WUD, 1994, p.1451)(WSJ, 7/3/97, p.A4)
1347 Plague broke out among the troops of the Kipchak Khan, who was besieging the Black Sea port of Kaffa. He catapulted dead bodies over the city walls. When Italian trading vessels in the harbor returned to Genoa, the carried the plague to Europe.
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.31)
1347-1350 Oct, The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, in Sicily. From this time forth the dis-ease became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandi-navia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years.
(V.D.-H.K.p.151) (NG, 5/88, p.678)
1368 Tamerlane lost control of China as the Mings took over local power. [see 1369-1405]
Gengis Khan Mongolin Flag